Types of drugs and their effects pdf
File Name: types of drugs and their effects .zip
Information on commonly used drugs with the potential for misuse or addiction can be found here.
Physicians have long recognized that different types of drugs affect people differently. Nonetheless, drugs may be categorized or classified according to certain shared symptomatologies or effects. The DRE categorization process is premised on these long-standing, medically accepted facts. DREs classify drugs in one of seven categories: central nervous system CNS depressants, CNS stimulants, hallucinogens, dissociative anesthetics, narcotic analgesics, inhalants, and cannabis. Drugs from each of these categories can affect a person's central nervous system and impair a person's normal faculties, including a person's ability to safely operate a motor vehicle.
7 Drug Categories
We live in a world where incredible drugs exist to treat many conditions that seemed untouchable in the past. In a report that looked at U. However, the impressive availability of medications also increases the possibility of drug interactions. This can cause the medication to be less or more potent than intended or result in unexpected side effects. If you use multiple medications, have certain health conditions, or see more than one doctor, you should be especially mindful of your medications.
This advice applies to both prescription and nonprescription drugs. There are several different types of drug interactions to be aware of. One example is the interaction between warfarin Coumadin , an anticoagulant blood thinner , and fluconazole Diflucan , an antifungal medication. Taking these two drugs together can lead to a potentially dangerous increase in bleeding. This is a reaction between a drug and a nonprescription treatment.
These include over-the-counter OTC medications, herbs, vitamins, or supplements. An example of this type of interaction can occur between a diuretic — a drug that attempts to rid the body of excess water and salt — and ibuprofen Advil. For example, some statins used to treat high cholesterol can interact with grapefruit juice. If a person who takes one of these statins drinks a lot of grapefruit juice, too much of the drug may stay in their body, increasing their risk for liver damage or kidney failure.
Another potential outcome of the statin-grapefruit juice interaction is rhabdomyolysis. This is when skeletal muscle breaks down, releasing a protein called myoglobin into the blood. Myoglobin can go on to damage the kidneys. Often, combining these drugs with alcohol can cause tiredness and delayed reactions. It can also increase your risk for negative side effects.
This interaction is when the use of a drug alters or worsens a condition or disease. Additionally, some medical conditions can increase the risk of side effects from specific drugs.
For example, some decongestants that people take for colds can increase blood pressure. This is a potentially dangerous interaction for people with high blood pressure hypertension. Another example is metformin a diabetes drug and kidney disease. People with kidney disease should use a lower dosage of metformin or not take it at all. This is because metformin can accumulate in the kidneys of people with this disease, increasing the risk of severe side effects.
Some medications can interfere with specific laboratory tests. This can result in inaccurate test results. For instance, tricyclic antidepressants have been shown to interfere with skin prick tests used to determine whether someone has certain allergies. Personal traits can play a role in whether a drug interaction will happen and if it will be harmful.
Specifics about your drugs, including dosage, formulation, and how you take them, can also make a difference. Variations in individual genetic makeup can make the same drug work differently in different bodies. As a result of their particular genetic code, some people process certain medications more quickly or more slowly than others. This may cause the drug levels to go down or go up more than expected.
Your doctor will know which drugs require genetic testing to find the correct dosage for you. Weight changes could affect dosage and also increase or decrease the risk of drug interactions. So if you have a substantial change in your weight, you could need a different dosage of some medications. As we age, our bodies change in many ways, some of which may affect how we respond to medications. The kidneys , liver , and circulation system may slow down with age.
This can slow the breakdown and removal of drugs from our bodies. Differences between the sexes, such as anatomy and hormones, can play a part in drug interactions. For example, the recommended dose of zolpidem Ambien given to women was lowered to half the amount prescribed to men. This happened after research found that women were more likely to have high levels of the drug in their system in the morning, when it could impair activities like driving.
For example, research has shown that high fat intake can reduce the response of bronchodilators, which people with asthma use to treat symptoms. For example, people who use insulin to treat diabetes can experience hypoglycemia low blood sugar during exercise. So they may need to adjust the time they eat and take their insulin to offset the drop in blood sugar.
Smoking cigarettes can also affect the metabolism of some drugs. Many factors affect the speed at which the body absorbs and processes drugs. The right dose for each person may depend on such factors, and may be higher or lower than the typical dose. The body can become tolerant to some medications, or the drugs themselves may help the body to process them more quickly over time. So dosages may have to be adjusted if they are taken for a long time. Two examples are pain drugs and antiseizure drugs.
Two people taking the exact same drug may be prescribed different doses. There are many different ways a drug can be administered. Some common ways we take drugs include orally by mouth , by injection, and topically applied to the skin. The way medications enter the body can greatly alter the resulting effects.
The formulation of a medication is the specific mixture of ingredients the drug contains. Certain drugs may affect the absorption of other drugs when taken one before the other. Antacids like calcium tablets can prevent the absorption of the antifungal medication ketoconazole , for example. But you should always read all drug labels and patient drug information you receive, whether the drug is prescription or OTC.
These will help you to better understand your drugs, and it may also prevent interactions. There are two kinds of prescription labels — package inserts and patient package inserts PPI. You may also see a package insert called the prescribing information. To learn more about a prescription drug, ask for the package insert. The package insert describes:. The prescription stock bottle may also have warning labels in the form of colorful stickers located directly on bottles. These have information about side effects and potential interactions.
The PPI is more familiar to most people. The PPI includes detailed information about the use of the drug, which is written more clearly than most package inserts. This brief information is there to remind you about how to take the drug. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist to get the most accurate and up-to-date information about your personal risk of drug interactions. Make sure they know all of the medications you are taking.
Have a clear conversation about potential foods, OTC drugs, and diseases that could cause problems when combined with your medications. In particular, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should check with their doctor before taking any new medications. Medications are made to help us, but they can harm us if taken incorrectly. Grapefruit has many health benefits but can be dangerous if combined with certain medications.
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7 Drug Categories
We live in a world where incredible drugs exist to treat many conditions that seemed untouchable in the past. In a report that looked at U. However, the impressive availability of medications also increases the possibility of drug interactions. This can cause the medication to be less or more potent than intended or result in unexpected side effects. If you use multiple medications, have certain health conditions, or see more than one doctor, you should be especially mindful of your medications. This advice applies to both prescription and nonprescription drugs.
Drugs are chemicals that affect the body and brain. Different drugs can have different effects. Some effects of drugs include health consequences that are long-lasting and permanent. They can even continue after a person has stopped taking the substance. There are a few ways a person can take drugs, including injection, inhalation and ingestion. The effects of the drug on the body can depend on how the drug is delivered.
MDMA—mild hallucinogenic effects; increased tactile sensitivity, empathic feelings; duration for an individual depends on the type and degree of his or her.
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Drugs are chemical substances that can change how your body and mind work. They include prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines , alcohol , tobacco , and illegal drugs. Drug use is dangerous.