List of presidents and prime ministers of all countries 2014 pdf

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list of presidents and prime ministers of all countries 2014 pdf

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The New York Times, over. There it is. This is it.

President Address

On August 11th, two weeks after Prime Minister Narendra Modi sent soldiers in to pacify the Indian state of Kashmir, a reporter appeared on the news channel Republic TV, riding a motor scooter through the city of Srinagar. She was there to assure viewers that, whatever else they might be hearing, the situation was remarkably calm. Modi, who rose to power trailed by allegations of encouraging anti-Muslim bigotry, said that the decision would help Kashmiris, by spurring development and discouraging a long-standing guerrilla insurgency.

The change in Kashmir upended more than half a century of careful politics, but the Indian press reacted with nearly uniform approval. After the initial tumult subsided, though, the Times of India and other major newspapers began claiming that a majority of Kashmiris quietly supported Modi—they were just too frightened of militants to say so aloud.

As the reports cycled through the news, the journalist Rana Ayyub told me over the phone that she was heading to Kashmir. In both Hindi and English, Ayyub speaks with disorienting speed and infectious warmth; it is difficult to resist answering her questions, but she might have another one before you finish responding to the first. On the phone, she invited me to meet her in Mumbai and try to get into Kashmir, even though foreign correspondents were banned there during the crackdown.

When I arrived, she handed me a pair of scarves and told me to buy a kurta, the typical Indian tunic. The crowd was filled with police and soldiers, but we made it to the curb without being spotted, climbed into a taxi, and sped off into Srinagar.

Even from a moving car, it was clear that the reality in Kashmir veered starkly from the picture in the mainstream Indian press. Soldiers stood on every street corner. Machine-gun nests guarded intersections, and shops were shuttered on each block. Apart from the military presence, the streets were lifeless. Schools were closed. Cell-phone and Internet service was cut off. Indian intelligence agents are widely understood to monitor the rosters of local hotels, so Ayyub and I, along with an Indian photographer named Avani Rai, had arranged to stay with a friend.

When we got there, a Kashmiri doctor who was visiting the house told us to check the main hospital, where young men were being treated after security forces fired on them. The police and soldiers were using small-gauge shotguns—called pellet guns by the locals—and some of the victims had been blinded. At the hospital, we found a scene of barely restrained chaos, with security officers standing guard and families mixing with the sick in corridors.

While I stood in a corner, trying to make myself inconspicuous, Ayyub ran to the fourth floor to speak to an eye doctor. After a few minutes, she returned and motioned for me and Rai to follow. Thirty gunshot victims were inside. The bearded man took Ayyub and Rai by the arm and led them away. Ayyub grew up in Sahar, a middle-class neighborhood of Mumbai. They went into the streets with their neighbors to celebrate Hindu festivals like Holi and Diwali, and twice a year they opened their home for Muslim feasts.

As the British Empire prepared to withdraw, in , Muslims were so fearful of Hindu domination that they clamored for a separate state, which became Pakistan. The division of the subcontinent, known as Partition, inspired the largest migration in history, with tens of millions of Hindus and Muslims crossing the new borders.

In the accompanying violence, as many as two million people died. Afterward, both Pakistanis and Indians harbored enduring grievances over the killings and the loss of ancestral land. Kashmir, on the border, became the site of a long-running proxy war. In , K. Members of the R. Other major religions, including Buddhism and Sikhism, were considered more authentically Indian. Hedgewar was convinced that Hindu men had been emasculated by colonial domination, and he prescribed paramilitary training as an antidote.

An admirer of European fascists, he borrowed their predilection for khaki uniforms, and, more important, their conviction that a group of highly disciplined men could transform a nation.

He thought that Gandhi and Nehru, who had made efforts to protect the Muslim minority, were dangerous appeasers; the R. The R. In , amid civic disorder and economic stagnation, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi suspended parliament and imposed emergency rule.

Among the lower-caste recruits was an eight-year-old named Narendra Modi, from Vadnagar, a town in the state of Gujarat. When Modi was thirteen, his parents arranged for him to marry a local girl, but they cohabited only briefly, and he did not publicly acknowledge the relationship for many years. Modi soon left the marriage entirely and dedicated himself to the R. In , he moved to the R. When Modi joined, the Party had only two seats in parliament.

It needed an issue to attract sympathizers, and it found one in an obscure religious dispute. In the northern city of Ayodhya was a mosque, called Babri Masjid, built by the Mughal emperor Babur in After independence, locals placed Hindu idols inside the mosque and became convinced that it had been built on the former site of a Hindu temple.

A legend grew that the god Ram—an avatar of Vishnu, often depicted with blue skin—had been born there. In September, , a senior B. Advani began calling for Babri Masjid to be destroyed and for a Hindu temple to take its place. To build support for the idea, he undertook a two-month pilgrimage, called the Ram Rath Yatra, across the Indian heartland.

Advani was arrested before he reached Ayodhya, but other B. On December 6, , a crowd led by R. By nightfall, it had been completely razed. The destruction of the mosque incited Hindu-Muslim riots across the country, with the biggest and bloodiest of them in Mumbai. But, after several days of mayhem, a Sikh friend, whom the family called Uncle Bagga, came to tell Waquif that a group of neighborhood men were coming for his daughters.

Waquif was frightened; Rana, who was then nine years old, had been stricken by polio and, though she was largely recovered, the illness had weakened the left side of her body.

That night, she and her older sister Iffat fled with Bagga. They stayed with some relatives of his for three months, before the family reunited in Deonar, a Muslim ghetto a few miles away.

Deonar is an impoverished neighborhood of fetid sewers and tin shacks. The Ayyubs, accustomed to a middle-class existence, found their lives transformed. Mumbai had been transformed, too. When she enrolled in a predominantly Hindu school nearby, her classmates called her landya , an anti-Muslim slur.

For the R. Membership soared, and by the B. During the dispute over Babri Masjid, Ashis Nandy, a prominent Indian intellectual, began a series of interviews with R. A trained psychologist, he wanted to study the mentality of the rising Hindu nationalists.

One of those he met was Narendra Modi, who was then a little-known B. Nandy interviewed Modi for several hours, and came away shaken.

His subject, Nandy told me, exhibited all the traits of an authoritarian personality: puritanical rigidity, a constricted emotional life, fear of his own passions, and an enormous ego that protected a gnawing insecurity. During the interview, Modi elaborated a fantastical theory of how India was the target of a global conspiracy, in which every Muslim in the country was likely complicit.

On February 27, , a passenger train stopped in Godhra, a city in Gujarat. It was coming from Ayodhya, where many of the passengers had gone to visit the site where Babri Masjid was destroyed, ten years earlier, and to advocate for building a temple there. Most of them belonged to the religious wing of the R. While the train sat at the station, Hindu travellers and Muslims on the platform began to heckle one another.

As the train pulled away, it stalled, and the taunting escalated. At some point, someone—possibly a Muslim vender with a stove—threw something on fire into one of the cars. The flame spread, and the passengers were trapped inside; when the door was finally pushed open, the rush of oxygen sparked a fireball.

Some fifty-eight people suffocated or burned to death. As word of the disaster spread, the state government allowed members of the V. Hindus, enraged by the display, began rampaging and attacking Muslims across the state.

In at least one instance, a Muslim boy was forced to drink kerosene and swallow a lighted match. Ehsan Jafri, an elderly Congress Party politician, was paraded naked and then dismembered and burned. The most sinister aspect of the riots was that they appeared to have been largely planned and directed by the R.

The Chief Minister of the Gujarati government was Narendra Modi, who had been appointed to the position five months before. As the riots accelerated, Modi became invisible; he summoned the Indian Army but held the soldiers in their barracks as the violence spun out of control. In many areas of Gujarat, the police not only stood by but, according to numerous human-rights groups, even took part.

When the riots began, Rahul Sharma was the senior police officer in charge of Bhavnagar, a district with a Muslim population of more than seventy thousand. In sworn testimony, Sharma later said that he received no direction from his superiors about how to control the riots. On the fourth day, a crowd of thousands gathered around the Akwada Madrassa, a Muslim school, which had about four hundred children inside.

The vigilantes were brandishing swords and torches. The crowd scattered, and Sharma escorted the children to safety. In nearly every other district, though, the violence carried on unchecked. Sharma, instead of being celebrated as a hero, was transferred out of the district to a make-work desk job.

The riots dragged on for nearly three months; when they were over, as many as two thousand people were dead and nearly a hundred and fifty thousand had been driven from their homes.

The ethnic geography of Gujarat was transformed, with most of its Muslims crowded into slums. One slum formed inside the Ahmedabad dump, a vast landscape of trash and sewage that towered hundreds of feet in the air.

As the riots festered, Ayyub, who was then nineteen, decided to help. After telling her mother that she was going trekking with a friend in the Himalayas, she put herself on a train to the Gujarati city of Vadodara.

List of Commonwealth of Nations prime ministers

On August 11th, two weeks after Prime Minister Narendra Modi sent soldiers in to pacify the Indian state of Kashmir, a reporter appeared on the news channel Republic TV, riding a motor scooter through the city of Srinagar. She was there to assure viewers that, whatever else they might be hearing, the situation was remarkably calm. Modi, who rose to power trailed by allegations of encouraging anti-Muslim bigotry, said that the decision would help Kashmiris, by spurring development and discouraging a long-standing guerrilla insurgency. The change in Kashmir upended more than half a century of careful politics, but the Indian press reacted with nearly uniform approval. After the initial tumult subsided, though, the Times of India and other major newspapers began claiming that a majority of Kashmiris quietly supported Modi—they were just too frightened of militants to say so aloud.


List of World President and Prime Ministers: Country Current Current Affairs PDF. pdf Prime Minister – Abdullah Abdullah (–present).


Bharat Ratna Award Winners: List of Recipients (1954-2019)

Starting 1st March, senior citizens and people over 45 but with comorbidities, can get vaccinated at over 10, Government centers and about 20, private centers; Vaccination at all Government centers will be free. Alok Sharma RDG. India looks forward to the UK leadership to deliver on the unresolved issues of the ParisAgreement including long-term climate finance and other key issues. Cabinet approves MoU between India and Bhutan, on cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has urged startups to team up for toys and make India a hub for toy manufacturing.

It is a knowledge-based institution of high quality and dedication, offers services and seeks to find complete solutions for the kinds of difficulties and improvements in the entire spectrum of the wind energy sector by carrying out further research. It caters to all technologies of the RE sector and predominantly provides financing for sector. Monthly Newsletter. Annual Reports. Subscribe subscribe Please pick the content you want to subscribe for Subscribe.

Indian side would establish a new Consulate General at Chengdu, whereas the Chinese side would establish one at Chennai. It would facilitate enhanced trade and economic engagement, people-to-people exchanges, tourism and would help in providing quicker consular assistance to the nationals of the two countries. It will strengthen technical cooperation in this field and help share best practices and knowledge. Under this framework MoU, India and China will work towards capacity development and delivery of vocational education in India, including the setting up of vocational training institutes in India.

Budget 2020: Full text of Nirmala Sitharaman’s budget speech

Starting 1st March, senior citizens and people over 45 but with comorbidities, can get vaccinated at over 10, Government centers and about 20, private centers; Vaccination at all Government centers will be free. Alok Sharma RDG.

Africa’s ‘Leaders for Life’

The two leaders extolled the broad strategic and globalpartnership between the United States and India, which will continue to generategreater prosperity and security for their citizens and the world. In order to raise investment by institutional investors and corporate entities, the leaders pledged to establish an Indo-U. Investment Initiative led by the Ministry of Finance and the Department of Treasury, with special focus on capital market development and financing of infrastructure. They pledged to establish an Infrastructure Collaboration Platform convened by the Ministry of Finance and the Department of Commerce to enhance participation of U. In this context, the U.

Nirmala Sitharaman announced the launch of a new personal income tax regime which can help the middle-class save taxes and also scrapped dividend distribution tax. She announced the launch of a new personal income tax regime which can help the middle-class save taxes and also scrapped dividend distribution tax DDT. In May , Prime Minister Modi received a massive mandate to form the government again.


Prime ministers of Commonwealth nations in order of appointment: Nation, Head of Government, Name of Head of Government, In office since. Brunei · Prime.


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