Take a look observation and portfolio assessment in early childhood pdf
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- The Power of Portfolios
- Early Childhood Assessment
- Take a Look: Observation and Portfolio Assessment in Early Childhood, 7th edition
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The Power of Portfolios
To ensure a well-run, purposeful program responsive to participant needs. Jack, age four, really liked to build three-dimensional structures.
His block buildings were fantastic! Paula, also four, painted at the easel almost every day. Matthew worked well with puzzles. She needed a better way to document the development of the children within her program. Sandy had heard the terms "authentic assessment" and "developmental assessment" and had also read that the U. Secretary of Education had called for all educational programs to increase parent participation in the education of their children Riley, p.
What Sandy needed was a way to involve parents and to keep better records of what children did while at school. What Sandy needed was portfolio-based assessment. Why Is Assessment Important? Assessment is the process of finding out what children can do, what they know, and what they are interested in.
Assessment is important because once a teacher or child care provider had gained information, appropriate activities and experiences can be provided to help the children continue to grow in all areas of development. While there are many forms of assessment, certain methods work better with young children. Accurate testing can only be achieved with reliable, valid instruments and such instruments developed for use with young children are extremely rare.
In the absence of valid instruments, testing is not valuable. Therefore, assessment of young children should rely heavily on the results of observations and descriptive data" Bredekamp, pp.
What Are Portfolios? As explained by Carol Gestwicki in Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Curriculum and Development in Early Education , "Portfolios may contain collections of representative work of children that illustrate their progress and achievements…" and "Children are encouraged to add their own selections of work that they feel show their progress to the portfolios" Gestwicki, p. This definition eliminates a sense of competition between children.
Portfolios can take various physical forms, depending on the preferences of the child care professional and the type of child care program offered. Boxes, accordion files, folders, three-ring binders, photo albums, and various combinations of these or similar items can be used as receptacles for proofs of progress.
Each child should have his or her own portfolio collection so that the progress review is individualized. What Can Be Included in Portfolios? There is no right or wrong in terms of setting up and contributing items to a portfolio. Examples of photos, drawings, conversational notes, and observations are included in the forms of documentation used. Photographs In many early childhood programs, younger children spend time working on tasks which are not easily saved for future reference.
For example, building with blocks can be an involved activity which a child might pursue with vigor. A permanent record is then available for future reference and can serve as a topic of discussion with the parents and the child. A list of possible photos a teacher might take include the following:. A helpful hint is to number a note card or sheet of paper to correspond to the number of pictures. Then, when a photo is taken, the teacher can note the child, date, and contents of the photo.
Some teachers include samples of the same project taken at two or three different times during the year. Each child will have projects that he or she feels especially good about. These are prime candidates for inclusion in a portfolio for sharing with parents later on. Depending on the age and developmental level of each child, attempts to write might include beginning scribbling, naming, or labeling of work, or other inventive spelling examples.
Some teachers keep a record of what each child wants to find out about at the beginning of each thematic unit. Teachers soon discover that finding out what interests each child can be used in planning future curriculum and thematic units.
Video can be used to show a child in the "process of creating" or in virtually any activity. Audiotapes can be used to record sample conversations, such as Show and Tell sharing; conversations at snack or meal times; and reciting poems, action rhymes, or songs. In addition to the sharing with parents that is carried out at various points during the year, the completed audio and video can be given to parents at the end of the year.
This is usually well-received by both parents and grandparents alike! Forms Used by Teachers and Parents. There are many types of forms which can be used effectively for seeking information about each child and his or her developmental needs. Many forms are completed through teacher observations.
Teachers observe children interacting with their environment and with others and document what they see. Some teachers use checklists or other forms to record their observations. This process seems to be natural and appropriate for preschool teachers because "Preschool children demonstrate growth and learning through activity Worthham, , p. There are a number of additional reasons why teachers should make observations. Some of the types of observations teachers frequently choose to make include the following:.
Teachers can note what activity a child is pursuing at different times during the day. For example, teachers can list the possible choices each preschooler might make during free play or self-select time. Then, at set times during free play, the teacher observes how each child is involved and places a check mark corresponding to the area in which the child is playing.
Using a different colored ink pen for each of the observation times helps a teacher to look back later to see patterns of play as well as the frequency with which each child uses specific areas of the room. Some teachers prefer to keep a pad of sticky notes and a pen in a pocket and jot down observations on children as they occur. When a dated observation has been written on the sticky note, it can be transferred to the clipboard page.
This is an easy way for a teacher to check that she is observing all of the children. A quick look at the clipboard tells who needs to receive some observation time. Various combinations can occur depending on the type of information being sought, shared, and utilized. Often, information gained through these various methods can be useful for instructional planning, as well as student progress sharing. Seeking Parent Involvement Frequently, parental input is sought because valuable information relating to the child can be obtained from parents as well as used effectively in the instructional planning process.
When parents contribute information at portfolio conferences, the conferences become a productive sharing and planning time in additional to the needed reporting of progress. In a concrete way, children in attendance at portfolio conferences see the importance adults place on working together with them to help them grow and develop. This process helps children appreciate their own special characteristics and abilities. Both parents and children can work together positively.
This three-way conferencing and planning method, involving teachers, parents, and children, is a major goal of authentic assessment today Ryan, p. Portfolios are practical and useful as both reporting and planning tools. The form and format are adaptable to each educational program for young children.
Those who have tried them, like them! Priscilla D. Huffman, Ph. She regularly teaches early childhood education curriculum and methods courses. She has also taught young children within various settings, including preschool, Head Start and kindergarten.
Batzle, J. Portfolio assessment and evaluation. Bredekamp, S. Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children birth through age eight. Reaching potentials: Appropriate curriculum and assessment for young children, volume 1. Essa, E. An early childhood curriculum: From developmental model to application. Albany, NY: Thomson Delmar. Gestwicki, C. Developmentally appropriate practice: Curriculum and development in early education.
Jones, E. Emergent curriculum. Martin, S. Riley, R. America goes back to school. Teaching Pre-K-8 , Volume 26 1. Ryan, C. Authentic assessment. Wortham, S. Early childhood curriculum: Developmental bases for learning and teaching. Activities for Outcome-Based Learning. Topics In Early Childhood Education. Art and Creativity in Early Childhood Education.
The Reading Corner. Teaching Children with Special Needs. Job Sharing Board.
Early Childhood Assessment
By Lynn Cohen. Later these timely records provide easy reference points as children reflect on their growth. As early childhood professionals, we know that the use of standardized assessment instruments, such as intelligence, readiness, and achievement tests, are not the best way to evaluate the progress of young children. Preschoolers vary from moment to moment and day to day in their ability to concentrate on what they are interested in. Because we want to understand the development of the whole child, your observations about children's growth provide a much more individualized, accurate, and up-to-the-minute picture. These insights, along with samples of children's work, can be used to create valuable portfolios. Portfolio assessment offers a variety of benefits, including:.
Take a Look: Observation and Portfolio Assessment in Early Childhood (5th Edition) By Sue Martin. Click link below to download ebook.
Take a Look: Observation and Portfolio Assessment in Early Childhood, 7th edition
Include Synonyms Include Dead terms. Second Edition. This book is intended for early childhood educators, student teachers, practicing teachers, and parents who are interested in improving observation and assessment processes for children from infancy through the elementary school years.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Throughout the school years, tests are used to make decisions about tracking, promotion or retention, placement, and graduation. Many teachers use tests or assessments to identify learning differences among students or to inform instructional planning. Widespread public concern to raise education standards has led states increasingly to use large-scale achievement tests as instruments of accountability National Research Council, a. Given their prevalence in the education system as a whole, it is not entirely surprising that the use of tests. There are both individually administered and group-administered standardized tests.
To ensure a well-run, purposeful program responsive to participant needs. Jack, age four, really liked to build three-dimensional structures. His block buildings were fantastic!
In Massachusetts, licensed early childhood programs are now required to include a child assessment component in their programs. Here we have included information and resources to inform educators on early childhood assessment programs. Childhood assessment is a process of gathering information about a child, reviewing the information, and then using the information to plan educational activities that are at a level the child can understand and is able to learn from. Assessment is a critical part of a high-quality, early childhood program. When educators do an assessment, they observe a child to get information about what he knows and what he can do. With this information, educators can begin to plan appropriate curriculum and effective individualized instruction for each child.
Take a Look: Observation and Portfolio Assessment in Early Childhood (5th Edition) [Martin, Sue] on gmworldwide.org *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Take a.