Pollitt art and experience in classical greece pdf

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Bibliography Abrams, M. New York.

Art and experience in classical Greece

Order and chaos: Archaic lyric poets express 'profound anxiety provoked by the irrational uncertainty and mutability of life. The Milesian philosophers sought a primary substance. Pythagoreans sought order in mathematical abstraction. Representation of the specific in light of the generic; searching for typical and essential forms of phenomena in the same way as Plato.

The archaic smile which characterizes the kuoroi was not so much an emotion as a symbol. The victory over the Persians in BC was the catalyst which transformed the humanism of late Archaic art into the Classical style.

In , Sparta was ruled by two kings and an elected board of advisors, Corinth by a mercantile oligarchy, Athens by democracy. Perhaps the most overriding characteristic of the Greek cities was to merge his life and interests in those of the group. The Persian empire antithetical to Greece was the most colossal state the East ever had. Cyrus BC sought to re-foreg regional Persian states into a new order. In , he defeated Lydia; Babylon, in BC. His successor Camyses conquered Egypt in His successor Darius I began to foray into eastern Europe.

The Persian Empire contained greatly disparate cultures and peoples and had a rigidly hierarchical social order. Athenians and Eretrians joined the Ionians in their revolt and burned the regional capital of Sardis. Persians crushed the revolt in BC. Darius sent an expeditionary force into Thrace and Macedon, burned Eretria, but were defeated by Athenians at Marathon.

The Greeks scored a major victory in the naval battle of Salamis in BC. Xerxes returned to Persia and his force was defeated the next year. Aeschylus and Herodotus portray the man as the anti- Greek, a man without restraint.

Confidence and Doubt: 'New Self- confidence and new uneasiness' set off by the victory in the Persian Wars created this new analysis of consicousness. Aeschylus portrayed the Persians as doomed by hybris. The new belief that the world might make sense provided new impetus for study of its changes. The new uneasiness comes from the idea that men are responsible for their own fortunes. In , the democratic faction in Athens, under Pericles, engineered the ostracism of Kimon, leader of the aristocratic, pro- Spartan faction, and about the same time broke the power of the court of the Areopagus, an instrument of conservative power.

Growing tension between Athens and Sparta: their clash at Tanagra in on the border of Attica and Boeotia, where Spartans had gone to restore the power of pro-Spartan Thebes in the region. Sculptors and painters seem to have borrowed technical devices developed in performance to display character and narrative action.

Nowhere is this better shown than Temple of Zeus at Olympia ; Pollitt compares this to the Oresteia of Aeschylus, which was produced about a year before the pediments were completed. In the Archaic period, class strife and oriental despotism hung over thought; after , Greece, like Orestes, saw itself as escaping from the familial curse through reason and law. The temple's east pediment, a frozen moment at start of chariot race between Oinomaos and Pelops, was created in ; it shows deities uninvolved in human conflict, archaic traits, and the violent action is all off- stage.

In contrast, the west pediment is full of violent action, portraying the battle of Lapiths and Centaurs at the wedding of Peirithoos and Deidameia, a subject chosen to express the triumph of civilization and rationality over barbarism. Apollo stood in the center as the guardian of religious law and civilized institutions.

Archaic Athena from the west pediment of Temple of Aphaia vs EC Aspasia type, the austere, controlled, meditative image. Perhaps the most characteristic trait of the severe style is the moody facial type: heavy jaw, full lips, heavy lids. Example, 'Blond Boy,' c. Two motivating forces behind the new severity: 1. Polygnotos of Thasos was, according to Pliny, the first painter to explore emotions, opening the mouth, showing teeth and giving a variety of expressions.

His work, which does not survive, seems to have been one of the fomenting forces in EC art. The twelve metopes of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia depict the Herakles at his labors, at various ages in his life and with varying expressions.

Realistic portraiture had its beginning around the same time. Perspective skenographia was first tried in painting scenery for plays, hence its name. In the Archaic period, a few schemata had been developed for depicting motion, but these were more like symbols than depictions. Rhythmos, on the other hand, was a new conception for the representation of movement. In dancing, momentary stops led to standing for a moment in characteristic positions, called rhythmoi, 'patterns isolated within continual movement.

One symptom of historical perspective is archaism, reviving and playing with earlier styles, such as flowered in Late Hellenistic and Hadriatic art. Its roots are traceable to , and are apparent in the Pan Painter, who employed mannerism common to Attic red- figure around He probably saw new trends as inimical to vase painting. Vase painters, however, were freer to indulge their whims than other artists. Ethos in the EC may have become mannerist itself, sometimes seeming out of context and added automatically.

In the middle of the 5th century the High Classical moment, confidence won out: unchanging divinity being brought into the world of man and harmonized with it.

There was an anthropocentric drift in philosophy away from the physical world and a preoccupation with human society. He was a patron of the arts and philosophy and directed his energy to the aim of the glorification of Athens.

He financed his building program with Athens' resources and those of the Delian allies. Pericles turns to consolidating the maritime empire, which led to conflicts with Corinth, the only Peloponnesian city with extensive commercial interests overseas, through interference with her colonies, Corcyra and Potidaea. A council of the Peloponnesians decided upon war and invaded Attica in In , plague struck Athens.

Human achievements are of more interest than cosmological abstractions. With the help of techne the orderly application of knowledge for the purpose of producing a specific, predetermined product , a golden age was possible.

The Doric Parthenon was reconstructed from BC, before the Peloponnesian War took its spiritual and economic toll. Chief architect, Iktinos; general overseer, Pheidias, who made the cult statue of Athena and probably designed the architectural sculptures. But with subtle, and intentional variations from mathematical regularity in the curvature of supposedly straight lines, inclination away from true verticality. The Parthenon's fusion of Doric and Ionic forms expresses a quality of Periclean Athens, the Ionic called to mind the luxury, refinement and intellectualism of Ionia, while the Doric associated with the somber simplicity of the Peloponnesos.

External metopes constructed , internal frieze, An army of sculptures that eventually developed a common spirit and homogeneous style. The metopes celebrate triumph of civilization over barbarism: east, gigantomachy; west, Greeks vs Amazons. The tendency to see the specfici in the light of the generic explains the use of a small number of themes in Greek architectural sculpture. The frieze shows the possibly first Panathenaean procession, in which a new peplos was given to the cult idol every 4 years.

The Athenians have inserted a picture of themselves into a context normally reserved for the gods. His work stood between the complete aloofness of Archaic art and deep involvement of the EC era. The Achilles painter seems to have grown into the Pheidian style, submerging his narrative style. His idea was new in that this symmetry had a philosophical component as well as a practical function: to express the good or the perfect or the beautiful.

Pythagoras of Samos of the late 6th century, had posited that numbers were the basic constituents of bodies and abstract qualities. Polykleitos gave expression to an ideal conception of human nature, man in Pythagorean terms. Most of his work was in making athletic figures on specific commission and seems to have been influenced by the Pheidian style as his career progressed: Doryphoros vs Diadoumenos. Thucydides describes the war like a disease.

Confidence was yielding to Archaic anxiety in an even more extreme form. In , the Peace of Nicias was signed. After their victory Sparta set up a tyranny of oligarchs The Thirty in Athens. The energy that had created the High Classical period was spent. The psychological upheaval is seen in Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannus, produced in , which seems bothered by the blindness and inherent arrogance of the 'man is the measure' philosophy.

Later, Euripides anxiety is a despairing recognition of the triumph of the irrational, growing from Medea to Trojan Women to Bacchae Most conspicuous example: the Temple of Athena Nike on the Acropolis. Ornamental beauty became an end all in itself and to a degree had usurped the role of meaning in the specific narrative sense.

Even when there is a specific narrative context to this era's reliefs, their purely decorative character is very marked. In vase painting, a movement toward feminine refinement, undemandingly pleasant. Similiarly, the development of stylistic analysis in rhetoric.

Gorgias of Leontini doubted men could ever attain real knowledge and turned his attention to becoming persuasive: devices of rhetorical style. Plato thought that the Sophists thought that they had a magical force with which to bring the world under their control. The former was epitomized in the Parthenon, the latter perhaps in the BC importation of the cult of Asklepios, the god whose intervention soothed and healed the afflicted.

The emotional and mystical tendencies appearing at this time became the central focus of Hellenistic religion. The beginnings of this new psychology are found above all in the Temple of Apollo Epikourios who brings help at Bassae in Phigaleia, part of Arcadia. In the center of its cella stood a Corinthian column, the first of its kind.

The interior may have been constructed by Athenians during the Peace of Nicias, reflecting the inwardly directed, personal and mysterious psychological disposition of Athens at the time. From the standpoint of what it expresses, 4th century art has more in common with the Hellenistic era than with the High Classical. HC apotheosizes the community and its values.

Later art reflects the experiences and values of man as an individual. In , Thebes defeated the Spartans, and began its short day in the sun. Athens joined again with Sparta against Thebes The Greek cities fell into political insignificance in the Hellenistic world.

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Greeks played an important part in the development of Persian architecture, for J. J. POLLITT, Art and Experience in Classical Greece, London,. Cambridge.


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CAR The new range of expression 1. Confidence and doubt 22 Art and drama 27 The new severity 36 Ethos and pathos 43 Movement and pictorial space 54 Archaism and mannerism The resurgence of the irrational 1 1. Refuge in gesture Ancient cults in new shrines Outside Athens

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Order and chaos: Archaic lyric poets express 'profound anxiety provoked by the irrational uncertainty and mutability of life. The Milesian philosophers sought a primary substance. Pythagoreans sought order in mathematical abstraction. Representation of the specific in light of the generic; searching for typical and essential forms of phenomena in the same way as Plato.

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Art of the Americas. Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, in which largely nude male figures were generally the focus of innovation. The rate of stylistic development between about and BC was remarkable by ancient standards, and in surviving works is best seen in sculpture. There were important innovations in painting, which have to be essentially reconstructed due to the lack of original survivals of quality, other than the distinct field of painted pottery. Greek architecture , technically very simple, established a harmonious style with numerous detailed conventions that were largely adopted by Roman architecture and are still followed in some modern buildings.

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Cambridge University Press published J. After nearly forty years, Cambridge asked Pollitt if he would consider creating a new edition of his book. This certainly would have been a worthy project, for one can assume that he would have updated his references and provided any new analyses or conclusions he had arrived at in the ensuing years. Pollitt, however, declined. Cambridge turned to Andrew Stewart to take on the task. Stewart, xvii, Stewart is writing for a broad audience, but, as with Pollitt, the reader is expected to possess some basic information about Greek archaeology.

Il est accessible ici. Myron is the first sculptor who appears to have enlarged the scope of realism, having more rhythms in his art [numerosior in arte] than Polycleitus and being more careful in his proportions [et in symmetria diligentior]. Yet he himself so far as surface configuration goes attained great finish, but he does not seem to have given expression to the feelings of the mind, and moreover he has not treated the hair and the pubes with any more accuracy than had been achieved by the rude work of olden days. The term numerus stands for rhythmos which derives from the dance, long an integral part of Greek community culture. It is easy to find our word rhythm there, but probably a mistake to rely on it too firmly. The Greek concept of rhythmos is not the same thing. It refers to the momentary positions taken by dancers during the course of their performance.

Соши смотрела на монитор и читала вслух: - В бомбе, сброшенной на Нагасаки, использовался не плутоний, а искусственно произведенный, обогащенный нейтронами изотоп урана с атомным весом 238. - Черт возьми! - выругался Бринкерхофф.  - В обеих бомбах уран. Элементы, ответственные за Хиросиму и Нагасаки, - оба являются ураном. Никакого различия. - Мы погибли, - прошептала Мидж.

Она никак не могла свыкнуться с этой мыслью. - Цифровая крепость, - сказал Стратмор.

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  • Not all Classical art is Athenian nor are all the characteristics of Classical Athens attributable to Pericles, but without Athens Greek art would not have become. Cleopatra A. - 19.06.2021 at 09:13

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