Patronate and patronage in early and classical islam pdf

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Slavery in the Conquest Period

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. John Nawas. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher.

Fees are subject to change. The material gleaned was systematically transformed into computerized data. Our data set encompasses some hundred variables distilled from a much larger pool we had started with then discarded in light of the pilot studies we had conducted.

We have used more than eighty biographical dictionaries to draw on. In other words, we relied on what the compiler said in explicit terms, not on inferences or guesses as to what he was possibly say- ing.

In some cases, information about a par- ticular individual is found in only one or two sources, while for others we found ourselves consulting twenty or more.

Brill, , — ; Joan E. Anatomy of the Hadith transmission network, CE — Ph. In what follows, we will be speaking of group averages. As stated earlier, all data were recorded as we encoun- tered them in the sources. Crone Roman, provincial and Islamic law.

Sa'sa'a 2. The last variable listed under the rubric of demographic data con- cerns occupational pursuits. The results are presented in table 3. The data have been cast into percentages and displayed in the form of maps.

A scrutiny of maps 2 through 6 shows that they do tell the same broad story: now the concentration the darker areas is found in the central provinces of the empire rather than the east- ern ones. There were seven instances of awwalu man. EI 2, I, The biographical dictionaries make occasional mention of note- worthy clothing worn by an individual.

Three of the seven were noted for wear- ing black clothing, the remaining four individuals were evenly dis- tributed over the four categories of qalansuwa, silk and woolen clothes and white garments. Juynboll has suggested that Arabs dyed their beards in imitation of the custom encountered in the territories they had con- quered.

Most puzzling indeed is: why a conqueror imitates the conquered while, if anything, common sense suggests the opposite. Ashqar 5. It remains open to debate if the quality of corpulence implied in early and classical Islam a positive or negative attribute.

Religion 1. This re-categorization is depicted in table The topics on which knowledge was written down appear in table We counted for each individ- ual the longest listing of teachers and pupils encountered for that person.

Not one single intellectual attribute appears to distinguish between the two groups. And now to what I have found. The infor- mation on previous religions was too scanty to allow any sensible statement. Considering the period under study this distribution is not unexpected. These centered either on outward appearance on the one hand, or geographic and migratory drifts and occupational pur- suits on the other. A thought that comes to mind is that these waves of migrants, as in our time, tended to follow in the footsteps of ear- lier ones and settle where they did.

The same lines of reasoning apply to occupational pursuits. Bulliet, Richard W. Brill, Crone, Patricia, Roman, provincial and Islamic law. Ess, Josef van, Theologie und Gesellschaft im 2.

Jahrhundert Hidschra. Gilbert, Joan E. Juynboll, G. Brill, , — Anatomy of the Hadith transmission net- work, CE —, Ph. Her publications deal with intellectual and social history, including her Changing Traditions. His publications include Medieval Jerusalem and Islamic Worship. Holy Places, Ceremonies, Pilgrimage Her research deals mainly with the history of al-Andalus, Islamic law and religious practices in classical Islam.

Cressier, M. Fierro and P. Guichard, She has taught at uni- versities in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Switzerland, and now works as an independent scholar in Lausanne. Making the Great Book of Songs She studies Islamic history, tradition, institutions and his- toriography.

Currently he is one of the four executive editors of the Encyclopaedia of Islam. Third Edition. He has published widely on classical Arabic literature, including Close Relationships: Incest and Inbreeding in Classical Arabic literature Related Papers.

By John Nawas. By adrian gully. By Steven Judd. Secondary Literature on Hadith in Western Languages to Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up.

Educated Slave Women and Gift Exchange in Abbasid Culture

In less than a decade the Muslims brought most of the peninsula under their domination; they called the Iberian lands they controlled al-Andalus. Although the borders of al-Andalus shifted over the centuries, the Muslims remained a powerful force on the peninsula for almost eight hundred years, until , when they were expelled by Ferdinand and Isabella. This volume, which accompanies a major exhibition presented at the Alhambra in Granada and The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, is devoted to the little-known artistic legacy of Islamic Spain. From to al-Andalus was the occidental frontier of Islam. Floating on the western edge of the Mediterranean, cut off from the European continent by jagged mountains, it was geographically isolated from both North Africa and Europe, from Islamic as well as Christian lands. Physical remoteness gave al-Andalus a privileged place in medieval myths but also separated it from the communities of the east and the west, so that it received only sporadic attention from both worlds. Although a small group of scholars pursued the serious study of the arts of Islamic Spain, these arts have for the most part been viewed as brilliant and exotic vestiges of a lost culture, as objects and monuments that left no mark on European tradition.

The chapter argues that although educated slave women played a significant role in Abbasid-era sources, their portrayal has received less attention than that of their free male counterparts. Using stories of gift exchange that feature two slave women, Utba and Inan, it demonstrates how enslaved women participated in the negotiation of their evolving status in the context of patriarchy in general, and educated female slavery in particular. As a theme of Abbasid literature, the exchange of material gifts contributes to a reconstruction of elite networks and hierarchies. The slave woman may be objectified as a gift, but she may also display subjective agency by interfering with her exchange or by giving a gift herself. The Abbasid-era stories of gift exchange that feature the slave women Utba and Inan demonstrate how these slave women participated in the negotiation of their evolving status in the context of patriarchy in general, and educated female slavery in particular. Two stories considered here treat the participation of such women in episodes of gift exchange.

The objective of this article is to propose a historiographical exercise through a Global History approach, more precisely, Connected History, trying to understand aspects of pre-modern chronology from a different perspective regarding geographical limits and Eurocentric traditions. Starting from the Battle of Talas, famous for putting Arabs and Chinese against each other, I will establish a connective narrative between East and West, highlighting how the year of CE is paradigmatic regarding the formation of frontiers and patterns of political interaction. I hope this exercise demonstrates how synchronicity and global connections can be a viable historical approach, allowing us to understand and to relocate pre-modern periodisation beyond its Eurocentric roots. Leiden: Brill, The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia. Princeton: Princeton University Press,

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In the days before Muhammad, the term originally applied to any form of tribal association. In the Quran and hadiths it is used in a number of senses, including 'Lord', 'guardian', 'trustee', and 'helper'. After Muhammad's death, this institution was adapted by the Umayyad dynasty to incorporate new converts to Islam into Arab-Muslim society and the word mawali gained currency as an appellation for converted non-Arab Muslims in the early Islamic caliphates. The term originated in the days before Muhammad to refer to a politically-active class of slaves and freedmen, [5] [6] but it gained prominence during the Umayyad Caliphate , as many non-Arab subjects converted to Islam. The influx of non-Arab converts to Islam created a new difficulty in incorporating them into tribal Arab society.

Matthew S. Gordon and Kathryn A. Hain

Повернувшись в полном отчаянии, она ожидала услышать шум смертельной борьбы на полу, но все было тихо. Все вдруг сразу же смолкло: как если бы Хейл, сбив коммандера с ног, снова растворился в темноте. Сьюзан ждала, вглядываясь во тьму и надеясь, что Стратмор если и пострадал, то не сильно. После паузы, показавшейся ей вечностью, она прошептала: - Коммандер. И в тот же миг осознала свою ошибку. Она ощутила запах Хейла, но повернулась слишком поздно.

Но, приближаясь к рубильнику, Стратмор понял, что ему необходимо преодолеть еще одно препятствие - тело Чатрукьяна на ребрах охлаждения генератора.

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