# Encoders and decoders in digital electronics tutorial pdf

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*Basically, Decoder is a combinational logic circuit that converts coded input to coded outputs provided both of these are different from one another. The name decoder means translating of coded information from one format into another. So the input code generally has fewer bits than output code word.*

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## Encoders and Decoders

What does it mean, in general terms, to encode something? Conversely, what does it mean to decode something? Perhaps the most common context for these terms to be used is cryptography code-making and code-breaking , but they also find application in common digital circuits. To encode something is to convert an unambiguous piece of information into a form of code that is not so clearly understood. To decode is to perform the reverse operation: translating a code back into an unambiguous form. This question gets students thinking about encoding and decoding in general terms - terms which they are probably already familiar with. This is a good first step in instruction, to identify a well-known context for a new subject, so students have an easier time relating to it.

In automata theory , combinational logic sometimes also referred to as time-independent logic [1] is a type of digital logic which is implemented by Boolean circuits , where the output is a pure function of the present input only. This is in contrast to sequential logic , in which the output depends not only on the present input but also on the history of the input. In other words, sequential logic has memory while combinational logic does not. Combinational logic is used in computer circuits to perform Boolean algebra on input signals and on stored data. Practical computer circuits normally contain a mixture of combinational and sequential logic.

A decoder is a circuit that changes a code into a set of signals. It is called a decoder because it does the reverse of encoding, but we will begin our study of encoders and decoders with decoders because they are simpler to design. A common type of decoder is the line decoder which takes an n-digit binary number and decodes it into 2 n data lines. The simplest is the 1-to-2 line decoder. The truth table is:. A is the address and D is the dataline.

## Combinational logic

Prerequisite — Encoder , Decoders. Binary code of N digits can be used to store 2 N distinct elements of coded information. This is what encoders and decoders are used for. Encoders convert 2 N lines of input into a code of N bits and Decoders decode the N bits into 2 N lines. Encoders — An encoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information in the form of a 2 N input lines into N output lines, which represent N bit code for the input. For simple encoders, it is assumed that only one input line is active at a time. As shown in the following figure, an octal-to-binary encoder takes 8 input lines and generates 3 output lines.

The combinational circuits that change the binary information into N output lines are known as Encoders. The binary information is passed in the form of 2 N input lines. The output lines define the N-bit code for the binary information. In simple words, the Encoder performs the reverse operation of the Decoder. At a time, only one input line is activated for simplicity.

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## Types of Binary Decoders,Applications

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An Encoder is a combinational circuit that performs the reverse operation of Decoder. It will produce a binary code equivalent to the input, which is active High. It is optional to represent the enable signal in encoders.

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