Encyclopedia of african history and culture pdf

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encyclopedia of african history and culture pdf

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Encyclopedia Of African History And Culture

The Toronto Sign continues to shine in blue every night in rotation with other commemorative lightings to show support for our frontline healthcare and essential workers who continue to lead the fight against COVID February 28 — International Rare Disease Day. March 1 — Black Mental Health Week. Woven into the colourful patterns are African cultural symbols like the Adinkra Sankofa bird, which represents the importance of moving forward through recalling the past. The inclusion of portraits of Canadians of African descent is an important statement in recognition that people of African descent are here, beautiful, bold and proud, holding Toronto accountable for justice and equity. Danilo Deluxo McCallum is a Toronto based visual artist. He works professionally as a painter, videographer, illustrator, graphic designer, muralist and art mentor.

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African literature , the body of traditional oral and written literatures in Afro-Asiatic and African languages together with works written by Africans in European languages. Traditional written literature, which is limited to a smaller geographic area than is oral literature , is most characteristic of those sub-Saharan cultures that have participated in the cultures of the Mediterranean. In particular, there are written literatures in both Hausa and Arabic, created by the scholars of what is now northern Nigeria , and the Somali people have produced a traditional written literature. Works written in European languages date primarily from the 20th century onward. The literature of South Africa in English and Afrikaans is also covered in a separate article, South African literature. See also African theatre. The relationship between oral and written traditions and in particular between oral and modern written literatures is one of great complexity and not a matter of simple evolution.

And as digital sources—from historical documents and statistics to cartographic, climatic, demographic, and environmental modeling—proliferate, so do the problems in using them. The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources discusses these sources and methods, and examines how these developments have influenced the scholarship that historians produce. Such methods continue to evolve, demanding that historians develop basic understandings of them. Thus, the Encyclopedia builds a theoretical foundation for the field, expanding the ways that Africa can be studied, and recovering the histories of the continent that often appear outside of the documentary record. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice. Oxford Reference.

Encyclopedia Of African History And Culture

Encyclopedias and other reference works provide background information and overviews of topics. Typically they summarize what is known in the field and can be a good starting point for research. For information about specific countries also see the section below on Country Information. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older.

The General History of Africa GHA is a pioneering corpus, unparalleled in its ambition to cover the history of the entire African continent, since the appearance of human beings to contemporary challenges faced by Africans and their Diasporas in the world. It is a history that no longer leaves the pre-colonial period in the shadows and that deeply integrates the destiny of Africa into that of humanity by highlighting its relations with the other continents and the contribution of African cultures to the general progress of humanity. The complete collection is published in eight volumes. All volumes are richly illustrated with maps, charts, figures and diagrams and a selection of black and white photographs. The texts, for the most part, are fully annotated and there is an extensive bibliography and index.

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Pan-Africanism is a worldwide movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all indigenous and diaspora ethnic groups of African descent. Based on a common goal dating back to the Atlantic slave trade , the movement extends beyond continental Africans with a substantial support base among the African diaspora in the Americas and Europe. Pan-Africanism can be said to have its origins in the struggles of the African people against enslavement and colonization [3] and this struggle may be traced back to the first resistance on slave ships—rebellions and suicides—through the constant plantation and colonial uprisings and the "Back to Africa" movements of the 19th century. It does not address the fact that slavery was invented in Africa, and existed long before local chiefs started selling to outsiders. Based on the belief that unity is vital to economic, social and political progress and aims to "unify and uplift" people of African race. At its core, Pan-Africanism is a belief that "African people, both on the continent and in the diaspora , share not merely a common history, but a common destiny". The Organization of African Unity now the African Union was established in to safeguard the sovereignty and territorial integrity of its Member States and to promote global relations within the framework of the United Nations.

From to German was the most widely used language in the United States after English. Around the turn of the 20th century, immigrants flooded into the United States. The house that served as the "White House" from to while Philadelphia was the capital of the United States. It subsequently prohibited the immigration of contract laborers and illiterates , and all Asian immigrants except for Filipinos, who were U. The British Isles have a rich history going back thousands of years. Later in the century, cultural and political developments al-lowed same-sex couples to lead more open and public lives.

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