Pakistani society and culture pdf
File Name: pakistani society and culture .zip
- Economy and Culture in Pakistan
- Culture of Pakistan
- 13 Things You Should Know About Pakistani Culture
Economy and Culture in Pakistan
While the official name of the nation is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, generally the country has been referred to as Pakistan since As part of India's independence from Great Britain in , a partition took part of their land and created Pakistan as a separate Islamic nation. It is estimated that approximately 95 percent of the population are Muslim, but members of several minority religions live there, including some Hindus, Christians, Parsis, Sikhs, and Buddhists. Although the modern nation of Pakistan was but fifty-three years old in , it has territorial areas and tribal populations whose histories date back many centuries; thus Pakistan has both an ancient and a relatively new identity.
Location and Geography. Pakistan is in South Asia and is , square miles , square kilometers in area. It was created from what had been the northwest side of India. All of the country except the southern portion is landlocked, with Afghanistan to the northwest, Jammu and Kashmir to the northeast, India to the east and southeast, and Iran to the west. In the southern portion, along the shores of the city of Karachi, which was the original capital when the nation was formed in l, is the Arabian Sea.
Karachi is well known for its shorelines. Most of the northern section of the country consists of mountains and also the famous Khyber Pass, whose history goes back several thousand years. It is in this northern section where most of the ancient tribes still live and where many ancient tribal cultures and customs still exist.
The city of Islamabad, which is centrally located in the country, was officially named the capital of Pakistan in , and construction began on government buildings in addition to others.
Islamabad became the active capital in In addition to modern government buildings it also features a wide variety of modern hotels, an international airport, and the nearby famous ancient city of Rawalpindi. In addition to being known for a number of mountains, including K-2, which is the second-highest mountain in world, Pakistan also has several lakes and rivers, including the Indus River, which is 1, miles 2, kilometers long.
Pakistan also has several deserts, in Punjab and Sind. Pakistan is also home to Taxila, the oldest known university in the world. In the north, leading from China, through Tammu and Kashmir, is a famous ancient silk road.
Pakistan is diverse. There are snowcapped mountains in the north, sunny beaches in the south, and a wide variety of geographically and culturally interesting sites elsewhere. The population of Pakistan is estimated to be million. An estimated 40 million live in urban areas, with the balance in rural areas. In addition to the residents of the major cities of Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, and Peshawar, which is the city at the edge of the Kybher Pass gateway, a number of tribal residents live in valleys.
These include Chitral Valley, at an elevation of 3, feet 1, meters , where the majority of the people are Muslims but that also is home to the Kafir-Kalash wearers of the black robe , a primitive pagan tribe. In Swat Valley, which was once the cradle of Buddhism, Muslim conquerors fought battles and residents claim to be descendants of soldiers of Alexander the Great. In the Hunza Valley, people are noted Pakistan for longevity, which they claim is because of diet and way of life.
The people of Hunza Valley are Muslims and also are believed to be descendants of soldiers of Alexander the Great. Shardu Valley is the capital of the district of Baltistan and is known as "Little Tibet" because the lifestyle there is similar to that in Tibet itself.
The people of each of these valley areas are well known for their tribal cultures, handicrafts, and for fascinating clothing, most of which is woven and handmade there and unique to their particular area. Linguistic Affiliation. The official language of Pakistan is Urdu, but most public officials, people, and others in Pakistan also speak English; English is referred to as the informal official language of Pakistan.
Urdu was created by combining the languages of early invaders and settlers, including Arabic, Persian, and Turkish. The spoken form of Urdu is the same as that of Hindi but it is written in a different script than Hindi. While Urdu and English are prevalent throughout Pakistan, a number of other languages are spoken in different valleys and areas.
The design of Pakistan's flag was officially adopted by the country's Constituent Assembly in July , it was flown for the first time on their independence day, 14 August l The flag was designed by Ali Jinnah, the man acclaimed as the founder of Pakistan. There is a thick white strip on the left side of the flag; the rest of the flag has a dark green background with a white crescent and a five-pointed star centered on it.
The white represents peace, and the dark green represents prosperity. The crescent stands for progress, and the star stands for light, guidance, and knowledge. Pakistan also has a national emblem. In the middle of a circled wreath of jasmine flowers is a shield that has four sections, each of which shows a major product of the country from when the country was created.
One section shows cotton, another shows wheat, one tea, and one jute. Above the four sections are the crescent and star, as on the national flag. On a scroll beneath the wreath is written in Urdu "Faith, Unity, Discipline. Emergence of the Nation. For many years India sought independence from Great Britain. During most of those years the Muslim League of India was also striving to establish an independent Islamic nation. The Muslim leader was Ali Jinnah from as early as ; in he began advocating and working for a separate Muslim state.
When the British finally agreed to India's independence and withdrew in , Pakistan became a Muslim nation, with Ali Jinnah as its first governor-general. Originally it was divided into two parts. The nation now called Pakistan was then called West Pakistan, and on the opposite side of India, some 1, miles 1, kilometers away, was another Muslim area, designated East Pakistan. In Pakistan became a republic.
In East Pakistan waged a successful war of independence from West Pakistan and became the independent nation of Bangladesh. While the history of Pakistan as an independent nation dates only to , the history of the territory it encompasses dates back many thousands of years, during the period when the territory was a portion of the Indian subcontinent. In addition, the land is home to the famous Khyber Pass, which is the route that many invaders into India used.
These include Mogul invaders and Alexander the Great. Many centuries ago a number of Buddhists also used that northern section as a route, so Pakistan today has many interesting Buddhist sites and historical notes as part of its history.
Punjab is also a portion of the country; it was the home of the founder of the Sikh religion, and it continues to play a significant role in Pakistan.
Lines of demarcation between India and Pakistan in northern border areas are unclear in places or in dispute, and controversy continues to surround these lines. National Identity. The national identity of Pakistan today is that of an Islamic nation; it was created as such. However, because the territory that is now Pakistan has a history that goes back several thousand years, the area has a history that forms part of the present identity of Pakistan.
That is one of the reasons why both residents and visitors find the relatively young nation of Pakistan historically interesting and why the national identity includes many sites and stories that are centuries older than the nation itself. Ethnic Relations. There are at least five ethnic groups within Pakistan. In general, there are not continuous or frequent problems between the different ethnic groups other than ethnic tensions in Sind, which occur somewhat regularly.
Because of the relative newness of the capital city of Islamabad, it features modern architecture arrayed under a master plan. In addition to modern capital buildings, Islamabad is also home to the famous Shah Faisal Mosque, which is so large that the prayer hall can accommodate ten thousand persons, while verandas and porticoes can hold more than twenty-four thousand worshipers. It also has a courtyard that has enough space for forty thousand people. Islamabad also has a sports complex, art galleries, a museum of natural history, and four universities.
The ancient city of Rawalpindi, on the border of Islamabad, has a history that dates back three thousand years. While many new modern buildings have been added to this city, it has retained much of its historical look and is well known for its bazaars that specialize in handicrafts. Rawalpindi is home to Linquat Memorial Hall with a large auditorium and library; Ayub National Park; and the Rawalpindi Golf Course, which was completed in but is still in regular use.
Another well-known urban area is Lahore, founded four thousand years ago. Lahore was the cultural center of the Mogul Empire, which glorified it with palaces, gardens, and mosques. It is the second-largest city in Pakistan and the capital of Punjab. Some of its historical sites include the Royal Fort, which was built in by Akbar the Great, and Wazir Khan's mosque, which was built in and is still considered one of the most beautiful mosques in all of South Asia.
Another ancient but still famous site in Lahore is the Shalimar Gardens, which were originally laid out in by Mogul emperor Shah-Jehan.
The garden is surrounded by high walls and a watchtower at each of the four corners. The garden is used as the site of regular special state receptions. Lahore is also home to several other well-known mosques, museums, and parks. A more recent historical site in Lahore is the Minar-e-Pakistan, where a resolution was passed in demanding creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims.
The minar is an estimated feet 60 meters high. Another equally well-known urban area is the city of Karachi, which was the first capital of Pakistan. Karachi is in the south of the nation and in addition to being a modern city on the shores of the Arabian Sea, it has a number of interesting sites, including the Masjid-e-Tooba which is said to be the largest single-dome mosque, and several art galleries and bazaars.
It has a wide variety of water sports and remains the center of commerce and industry. There are a number of other urban areas throughout Pakistan, but one of the best known is the city of Peshawar, which is the northernmost major city and is home to the gateway to the Khyber Pass. Peshawar is a city of Pathan tribals who are also Muslims. Alexander the Great and parts of his army stayed in this city for forty days in B.
Balahissar Fort is on both the eastern and western approaches to the city, and it is from near here that one can take a train along the mountain routes of the Khyber Pass.
While the city is centuries old, the modern Peshawar is well known for its bazaars and for several colleges and a university. Food in Daily Life. Because at least 95 percent of the Pakistani population is Muslim, there are two food customs that are followed almost universally. One is that Muslims do not eat pork therefore beef, chicken, lamb, and fish are the basic foods , and the other is that during the month of Ramadan, fasting is a daily activity. Spices and curry are an essential part of any Pakistani recipe.
The most prevalent spices include chili powder, tumeric, garlic, paprika, black and red pepper, cumin seed, bay leaf, coriander, cardamom, cloves, ginger, cinnamon, saffron, nutmeg, and poppy seeds, among others. Using yogurt to marinate meats is another typical recipe. Because of the use of spices and curry for the main dish, the usual side dish is plain rice.
Culture of Pakistan
All other cultural aspects are inspired by Islam. Pakistani culture is highlighted by its grandeur, simplicity, firm convictions and noble deeds and ideas. Want to tell your story? Now you can! Please visit our submission guidelines for details! Pakistan came into existence to provide its people with a system based on Islam.
You will gain an understanding of a number of key areas including:. Once you've read this guide, ensure the success of your Pakistan business venture by:. Remember this is only a very basic level introduction to Pakistani culture and the people; it can not account for the diversity within Pakistani society and is not meant in any way to stereotype all Pakistanis you may meet! The modern history of Pakistan was shaped by the British who arrived as traders with the British East India company in the 18th century. This period of imperialism was a time of great violence and gave way to Indian Uprisings against the British oppressors.
While the official name of the nation is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, generally the country has been referred to as Pakistan since As part of India's independence from Great Britain in , a partition took part of their land and created Pakistan as a separate Islamic nation. It is estimated that approximately 95 percent of the population are Muslim, but members of several minority religions live there, including some Hindus, Christians, Parsis, Sikhs, and Buddhists. Although the modern nation of Pakistan was but fifty-three years old in , it has territorial areas and tribal populations whose histories date back many centuries; thus Pakistan has both an ancient and a relatively new identity. Location and Geography. Pakistan is in South Asia and is , square miles , square kilometers in area. It was created from what had been the northwest side of India.
13 Things You Should Know About Pakistani Culture
Pakistan is a multi- ethnic country located on the western border of India and the eastern borders of Iran and Afghanistan. As such, norms and values vary significantly across the country, and the regions and provinces are quite distinguished from one another. The vast spectrum of ethnic and religious diversity presents certain difficulties when trying to identify consistent practices, beliefs and values. Currently, the country can best be described as a cultural mosaic, where conservatism and traditionalism reside side by side with secularism and liberalism.
Throughout Pakistan, as in most agrarian societies, family organization is strongly patriarchal, and most people live with large extended families, often in the same house or family compound. The eldest male, whether he is the father, grandfather, or paternal uncle, is the family leader and makes all significant decisions regarding the family and its members. In wealthy peasant and landowner households and in urban middle-class families, the practice of keeping women in seclusion purdah is still common; when women leave their houses, they typically cover their heads.
Migrants and Cities in a Muslim Society
Pakistan continues to face multiple sources of internal and external conflict. While incidences of domestic terrorism have reduced, in part due to measures taken by the Pakistani state, extremism and intolerance of diversity has grown. There is some recognition by the state that instead of merely kinetic responses holistic counterterrorism policies are needed to counteract this trend. The inability of state institutions to reliably provide peaceful ways to resolve grievances has encouraged groups to seek violence as a legitimate alternative. While peaceful political transitions occurred in both and , the country is still facing mounting debt crisis and a perennial trade imbalance on the economic front.
The culture of these Pakistani ethnic groups have been greatly influenced by many of its neighbours, such as the other South Asian , Iranic , Turkic as well as the peoples of Central Asia and West Asia. The region has formed a distinct unit within the main geographical complex of South Asia , the Middle East and Central Asia from the earliest times, and is analogous to the intermediary position of Afghanistan. Their cultural origins also reveal influences from far afield and indigenous, including Ancient India and Central Asia. Pakistan was the first region of the Indian subcontinent to be fully impacted by Islam and has thus developed a distinct Islamic identity, historically different from areas further east. Pakistani literature originates from when Pakistan gained its independence as a sovereign state in The common and shared tradition of Urdu literature and English literature of Greater India was inherited by the new state.
Сьюзан бессильно прижалась к двери, за которой, всего в нескольких сантиметрах от нее, работала вентиляция, и упала, задыхаясь и судорожно хватая ртом воздух. Сьюзан закрыла глаза, но ее снова вывел из забытья голос Дэвида.