Disparities in distribution of particulate matter emission sources by race and poverty status pdf

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disparities in distribution of particulate matter emission sources by race and poverty status pdf

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This article in the American Journal of Public Health examines nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter-emitting facilities and the impact of air pollution on surrounding residential populations. The researchers discovered that the burden from emissions disproportionately affected those in poverty, non-Whites, and particularly Blacks, who experienced a 1. These patterns were observed nationally as well as within most states and counties across the United States.

Disparities in Distribution of Particulate Matter Emission Sources by Race and Poverty Status

Particulate matter PM is a type of air pollution. It is a mixture of airborne solids such as particles of dust, soot, and other matter, and liquid droplets. While the particles can be a wide range of sizes, those less than 10 microns in diameter noted as PM10 , and especially the fine particles PM2. Children are especially vulnerable.

Asthma, a condition affecting 8. In , asthma was the primary cause of 1. Black children and children living below the poverty line experience even higher rates of asthma In addition, black children are 4 times more likely to be admitted to the hospital for asthma, and have a death rate 10 times that of non-Hispanic white children 2.

Previous research has shown that stationary sources of air pollution are found in higher concentrations near socially disadvantaged populations - specifically low income communities and communities of color.

A deeper examination of disproportionate pollutant exposures across racial versus socioeconomic lines can better inform policies to address health disparities. To quantify nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter PM -emitting facilities by the characteristics of the surrounding residential population and to illustrate various spatial scales at which to consider such disparities.

In addition to the presence or absence of a facility, the magnitude of emissions was considered when determining burden. National, state and county data were quantified for comparison of disparity. Non-White populations overall experienced 1. Populations living in poverty experienced 1. Disparities in pollution exposure from PM emissions were more pronounced for Black populations regardless of wealth than for those living in poverty.

Thus, it is insufficient to consider only socioeconomic status when working to decrease burdens caused by PM. Emission disparities resulting from structural racism exist on a national level and at the state and county levels in most instances.

The U. However, while major improvements in air quality have occurred under the Clean Air Act overall, disparities persist at regional and local levels. Approximately two in five people in America live in a place where the air is unhealthy to breathe, including children, who breathe more air per pound of body weight than adults 4.

Previous studies found disproportionate exposures to other air pollutants along racial lines 5,6. Moreover, there needs to be sufficient funding for adequate monitoring and enforcement of air quality standards.

The findings of this study also indicate the need for further and specific protections for communities of color, not just around PM or air pollution exposures. Another recent example of disproportionate exposure burdens is the mass lead contamination of drinking water in Flint, Michigan, where many homes still do not have safe drinking water from their taps.

Under this Agenda, the EPA awards grants to help communities address environmental health disparities. Until policies and regulations achieve environmental health equity, this Agenda needs continued support in order to help disadvantaged communities lacking the resources and political capital to protect themselves from environmental harm. It is imperative that state and local governments commit to removing barriers to inclusive participation of impacted communities in siting and permitting decisions.

Affected communities need to be invited to the table through multiple modes of clear communication, and unreasonable rules should be removed.

Thus, barriers to disadvantaged communities commenting in the proposal stage carry through to the appeal stage 9. Structural racism needs to be addressed across the board at all levels of government and in other institutions and organizations, in order to truly get to the root of health disparities arising from and perpetuated by environmental injustices. For more information on children and health disparities, view our policy factsheet HERE.

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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Mikati and A. Benson and T.

This article in the American Journal of Public Health examines nationwide disparities in the location of particulate matter-emitting facilities and the impact of air pollution on surrounding residential populations. The researchers discovered that the burden from emissions disproportionately affected those in poverty, non-Whites, and particularly Blacks, who experienced a 1. These patterns were observed nationally as well as within most states and counties across the United States. The authors conclude that strictly socioeconomic considerations may be inadequate in reducing particulate-matter burdens equitably across populations, as racial disparities are more pronounced than disparities based solely on poverty status. Mikati I et al. American Journal of Public Health ; e1—e6. It is the leading United Nations agency promoting the development of socially and environmentally sustainable human settlements and the achievement of adequate shelter for all—its work spanning across the world—including in villages, towns, and cities of all sizes.

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Particulates — also known as atmospheric aerosol particles , atmospheric particulate matter , particulate matter PM , or suspended particulate matter SPM — are microscopic particles of solid or liquid matter suspended in the air. The smaller PM 2. Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes , dust storms , forest and grassland fires, living vegetation and sea spray.

Particulate matter PM is a type of air pollution. It is a mixture of airborne solids such as particles of dust, soot, and other matter, and liquid droplets. While the particles can be a wide range of sizes, those less than 10 microns in diameter noted as PM10 , and especially the fine particles PM2. Children are especially vulnerable. Asthma, a condition affecting 8.

Particulates

If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to reset your password. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Black Americans in Louisiana are disproportionately dying from COVID, and environmental disparities may be contributing to this injustice.

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 Мне был нужен человек, никак не связанный с государственной службой. Если бы я действовал по обычным каналам и кто-то узнал… - И Дэвид Беккер единственный, кто не связан с государственной службой. - Разумеется, не единственный. Но сегодня в шесть часов утра события стали разворачиваться стремительно. Дэвид говорит по-испански, он умен, ему можно доверять, к тому же я подумал, что оказываю ему услугу.

 Да нет, сэр, - попыталась она сгладить неловкость.

COMMENT 1

  • Results. For PM of micrometers in diameter or less, those in poverty had times higher burden than did the overall population, and non-Whites had times higher burden. Blacks, specifically, had times higher burden than did the overall population. Brandon L. - 20.06.2021 at 06:19

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