Social groups and organizations pdf
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- 4.S: Groups and Organizations (Summary)
- Chapter Five: Social Groups and Formal Organizations
- Social structure and organizations
- Social Group
4.S: Groups and Organizations (Summary)
A social group is a collection of people who interact with each other and share similar characteristics and a sense of unity. A social category is a collection of people who do not interact but who share similar characteristics. For example, women, men, the elderly, and high school students all constitute social categories.
A social category can become a social group when the members in the category interact with each other and identify themselves as members of the group. In contrast, a social aggregate is a collection of people who are in the same place, but who do not interact or share characteristics.
In the Sherifs' experiment, the youngsters also erected artificial boundaries between themselves. In the beginning, the Eagles and Rattlers were friendly, but soon their games evolved into intense competitions.
The two groups began to call each other names, and they raided each other's cabins, hazed one another, and started fights. Later in the same experiment, though, Sherif had the boys work together to solve mutual problems. When they cooperated with one another, the Eagles and Rattlers became less divided, hostile, and competitive. Parishioners at a particular church, for instance, may evaluate themselves by the standards of a denomination, and then feel good about adhering to those standards.
If most parishioners shine in their spiritual accomplishments, then the others will probably compare themselves to them. In contrast, secondary groups are those in which individuals do not interact much.
Members of secondary groups are less personal or emotional than those of primary groups. These groups are marked by secondary relationships in which communication is formal. They tend to relate to others only in particular roles and for practical reasons. An example of a secondary relationship is that of a stockbroker and her clients. The stockbroker likely relates to her clients in terms of business only.
She probably will not socialize with her clients or hug them. Primary relationships are most common in small and traditional societies, while secondary relationships are the norm in large and industrial societies. Because secondary relationships often result in loneliness and isolation, some members of society may attempt to create primary relationships through singles' groups, dating services, church groups, and communes, to name a few.
This does not mean, however, that secondary relationships are bad. For most Americans, time and other commitments limit the number of possible primary relationships. Further, acquaintances and friendships can easily spring forth from secondary relationships. The smallest of small groups is a dyad consisting of two people.
A dyad is perhaps the most cohesive of all groups because of its potential for very close and intense interactions. It also runs the risk, though, of splitting up. A triad is a group consisting of three persons. A triad does not tend to be as cohesive and personal as a dyad. The more people who join a group, the less personal and intimate that group becomes.
In other words, as a group increases in size, its members participate and cooperate less, and are more likely to be dissatisfied.
A larger group's members may even be inhibited, for example, from publicly helping out victims in an emergency. In this case, people may feel that because so many others are available to help, responsibility to help is shifted to others. Similarly, as a group increases in size, its members are more likely to engage in social loafing , in which people work less because they expect others to take over their tasks.
The pressure to conform within small groups can be quite powerful. Many people go along with the majority regardless of the consequences or their personal opinions.
Nothing makes this phenomenon more apparent than Solomon Asch's classic experiments from the s and s. Asch assembled several groups of student volunteers and then asked the subjects which of the three lines on a card was as long as the line on another card. Each of the student groups had only one actual subject; the others were Asch's secret accomplices, whom he had instructed to provide the same, though absurdly wrong, answer.
The pressure to conform is even stronger among people who are not strangers. The group does not tolerate dissenting opinions, seeing them as signs of disloyalty to the group. In short, collective decisions tend to be more effective when members disagree while considering additional possibilities.
Two types of leaders normally emerge from small groups. Expressive leaders are affiliation motivated. That is, they maintain warm, friendly relationships. They show concern for members' feelings and group cohesion and harmony, and they work to ensure that everyone stays satisfied and happy. Expressive leaders tend to prefer a cooperative style of management.
Instrumental leaders , on the other hand, are achievement motivated. That is, they are interested in achieving goals. These leaders tend to prefer a directive style of management.
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Chapter Five: Social Groups and Formal Organizations
A social group is two or more humans who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity. In the social sciences, a social group is two or more humans who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and have a collective sense of unity. This is a very broad definition, as it includes groups of all sizes, from dyads to whole societies. A society can be viewed as a large group, though most social groups are considerably smaller. Society can also be viewed as people who interact with one another, sharing similarities pertaining to culture and territorial boundaries. A social group exhibits some degree of social cohesion and is more than a simple collection or aggregate of individuals, such as people waiting at a bus stop or people waiting in a line. Characteristics shared by members of a group may include interests, values, representations, ethnic or social background, and kinship ties.
A social group consists of two or more people who regularly interact on the basis of mutual expectations and who share a common identity. It is easy to see from this definition that we all belong to many types of social groups: our families, our different friendship groups, the sociology class and other courses we attend, our workplaces, the clubs and organizations to which we belong, and so forth. Except in rare cases, it is difficult to imagine any of us living totally alone. Even people who live by themselves still interact with family members, coworkers, and friends and to this extent still have several group memberships. It is important here to distinguish social groups from two related concepts: social categories and social aggregates.
Social Networks.. A set of links between individuals or other social units, such as bureaucratic organizations or even entire nations.. Numerous research.
Social structure and organizations
All rights reserved. Not every collection of individuals forms a group. Many people with a status in common women, homeowners, soldiers, millionaires, college graduates, and Roman Catholicsare not groups, but categories. A crowd can become a group, then a crowd again.
In other words, a group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. Groups where people get along, feel die desire to contribute to the team, and are capable of coordinating their efforts may have high-performance levels. Group can be defined as a collection of individuals who have regular contact and frequent interaction, mutual influence, the common feeling of camaraderie, and who work together to achieve a common set of goals. The term group can be defined in several different ways, depending on the perspective that is taken. The list is not comprehensive.
A social group is a collection of people who interact with each other and share similar characteristics and a sense of unity. A social category is a collection of people who do not interact but who share similar characteristics. For example, women, men, the elderly, and high school students all constitute social categories. A social category can become a social group when the members in the category interact with each other and identify themselves as members of the group.