Focused acceptance and commitment therapy pdf
File Name: focused acceptance and commitment therapy .zip
- Acceptance and commitment therapy
- A Practical Guide to Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
- Focused acceptance and commitment therapy pdf
- Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
This is a quasi-experimental research project with an expanded research design. The statistical population consisted of married students studying at the Islamic Azad University, Sirjan Branch in the academic year. Using convenience sampling, 45 people were selected and randomly divided into three groups of 15 people i. Abbasi Cheshmeh Golek-e Sofla, A.
Acceptance and commitment therapy
Recently, some studies have shown promising results with brief protocols of acceptance and commitment therapy ACT focused on RNT in the treatment of emotional disorders in adults. Six adults meeting criteria for both disorders and showing severe symptoms of at least one of them participated in the study. A delayed multiple-baseline design was implemented. The ACT protocol was then implemented, and a 3-month follow-up was conducted. No adverse events were observed. Generalized anxiety disorder GAD and unipolar depression are the two psychological disorders most frequently seen in primary care and outpatient mental health services Wittchen, Both disorders lead to considerable disability, with depression alone being considered the first cause of disability worldwide World Health Organization [WHO], Both GAD and depression are considered to be chronic disorders.
The comorbidity between GAD and depression is more the rule than the exception Klenk et al. This comorbidity is associated with slower recovery and greater chronicity, recurrence rates, health costs, hospitalization rates, disability days, suicide attempts, and psychosocial disability Hirschfeld, ; Wittchen, Additionally, depression and GAD are both relevant risk factors for the development of medical conditions such as vascular and pulmonary disease, lipid disorders, and asthma Hirschfeld, ; Kroenke et al.
The average annual cost of comorbid GAD and depression is about 4, USD per person and, when other somatoform disorders are developed, such as pain disorders, it increases to 12, USD Zhu et al. Importantly, the presence of comorbid GAD and depression has predicted poorer therapeutic outcomes using psychotropic medication Van Balkom et al. There are at least two main reasons to emphasize the need for developing effective, brief interventions for comorbid GAD and depression.
Firstly, premature psychotherapy termination is a frequent phenomenon in most clinical settings Hilsenroth et al. Other studies have found that the average number of sessions completed varies between four and six Olfson et al. Importantly, there is some evidence indicating that clients who terminated therapy prematurely have similar outcomes to the individuals who never began the therapy Stark, Secondly, developing brief interventions is essential because psychological therapy provided in primary care settings for depression and GAD is usually brief due to the limited budget in mental health care or because health professionals opt to attend patients for brief, time-limited therapy to improve access to mental health services for all patients in the clinic Saxena et al.
Accordingly, it is crucial to develop brief psychological interventions that can be realistically adopted in mental health services. However, the data of the efficacy of brief interventions obtained so far is not especially encouraging for comorbid GAD and depression. For instance, the meta-analysis conducted by Cape et al. Therefore, there seems to be ample space for improving the efficacy of brief psychological interventions for comorbid depression and anxiety disorders.
A promising way to advance in the direction of developing psychological interventions based on the concept of MINC is to analyze the transdiagnostic processes involved in GAD and depression.
In this sense, the high comorbidity between GAD and depression might be due to sharing some transdiagnostic processes such as worry Borkovec, , rumination Nolen-Hoeksema, , and experiential avoidance Hayes et al. According to prospective and experimental studies, worry and rumination play a crucial role in the onset and maintenance of GAD and depression Harvey A.
Whereas excessive worry is a core characteristic of GAD Borkovec, , rumination plays a significant role in depression Nolen-Hoeksema, Due to the similarity between worry and rumination and the fact that individuals with GAD show high levels of rumination, and individuals with depression high levels of worry, the term repetitive negative thinking RNT; Harvey A.
Functionally, worry and rumination can be conceptualized as experiential avoidance EA strategies. EA strategies may take multiple topographies, but all pertain to the same functional class of behavior to the extent that they are directed at reducing discomfort. Empirical evidence supports the role of EA in the onset and maintenance of emotional disorders such as GAD and depression Roemer and Orsillo, ; Boulanger et al. Luciano et al.
For the sake of brevity, we will focus the exposition on the first four points. For instance, as indicated in Gil-Luciano et al.
Within each branch of the hierarchy, some objectives and actions acquire reinforcing functions because they are connected to the previously mentioned values. Example of a hierarchical network of positive reinforcers left and negative reinforcers that might function as triggers for engaging in RNT right. For example, sharing a problem with a friend might have a reinforcing function, even when the person is re-experiencing negative feelings while telling it because it is part of developing intimate friendships.
In contrast, events indicating an opposite result will acquire aversive functions. The most important thing is that the individual will react in the presence of this thought with a particular aim.
The first way is responding in coordination with the immediate discriminative or controlling functions of the thought. This way, when the thought is aversive, the reaction will have a function of avoidance. However, Figure 2 shows that RNT usually has a paradoxical effect because it prolongs negative affect as it focuses on negative content Ehring and Watkins, ; Newman and Llera, ; Ruiz et al. The prolonged negative affect usually leads the individual to engage in additional experiential avoidance strategies such as thought suppression, distraction, overeating, substance consumption, etcetera e.
Nolen-Hoeksema et al. These strategies usually provoke a reduction in the negative affect until new triggers for RNT surface. RNT processes provoke at least three critical counterproductive effects. Firstly, the network of thoughts increases in complexity because myriads of new relations are established during the process Barnes-Holmes et al. This effect facilitates the initiation of a new RNT process because more thoughts might begin to work as triggers e.
Secondly, the derivation level of the network of thoughts is reduced because of the repetition of the thinking process.
This effect provokes that the individual will engage in a similar RNT process more rapidly and with higher automaticity, which resembles the common belief of uncontrollability of the RNT process among individuals with GAD and depression e. Wells, Lastly, relational flexibility is reduced because thoughts are usually related in the same way during the RNT process. For instance, a particular thought of the RNT chain e. The reduced relational flexibility provokes that the individual will experience more difficulties in disengaging from RNT by thinking in alternative ways, which resembles how these individuals tend to come back to thinking about the same thing over and over again.
From this standpoint, GAD and depression are usually patterns of behavior characterized by RNT under the control of private experiences related in opposition to values. Accordingly, the aim of RNT-focused ACT is to develop the skill of disrupting unconstructive RNT in response to the hierarchical triggers and redirecting attention to valued actions i.
Focusing the intervention on the hierarchical triggers should provoke a more rapid and generalizable effect due to how the transformation of functions through hierarchical relations works Gil et al. This means that explicitly targeting the hierarchical triggers e. However, targeting only specific thoughts contained in the hierarchical trigger might produce only a limited effect Gil-Luciano, In the first study, Ruiz et al.
Eleven individuals participated in a two-arm, randomized multiple-baseline design. During the 6-week follow-up, nine participants showed significant reductions in most of the RNT measures. The intervention obtained very large effect sizes in all RNT-related measures and emotional symptoms. Ruiz et al. These initial studies encouraged testing brief RNT-focused ACT protocols with problems in which psychological interventions often find difficulties in reaching the usual level of efficacy.
Similarly, Salazar et al. No participant showed the diagnosis of child depression or comorbid disorders at the 4-week follow-up. As previously discussed, testing the efficacy of brief approaches to treat comorbid GAD and depression is especially relevant due to the high prevalence of this comorbidity and the high disability, health risks, and economic costs that it provokes.
A delayed multiple-baseline design was conducted with six adult participants who showed clinically significant levels of depression and GAD symptoms and at least severe symptom level in one of the disorders. Do you want to be more focused on the things that are important to you? Of the remaining 13 potential participants, 5 did not respond to emails or did not attend the informative session.
In conclusion, eight participants met the initial inclusion criteria and attended an interview conducted by a psychologist who had received extensive training in psychological assessment. In this interview, the terms and conditions of the study were explained. The interviewer also asked questions related to the course of the emotional difficulties e.
How much time have you been feeling this way? How has feeling this way has affected your life? Have you been in psychological or psychiatric treatment? Have you experienced suicidal thoughts? To participate in the study, individuals had to show clinically significant levels of depression and GAD symptoms i. Exclusion criteria were: a having suicidal thoughts more than half the days according to Item 9 of the PHQ-9; and b reporting frequent use of illegal drugs e.
Two participants were excluded: one because of experiencing suicidal thoughts more than half the days and one because of using illegal drugs frequently. Excluded participants were given the opportunity to receive immediate treatment or were directed to a mental health service.
Participants who completed the study were remunerated with 25, Colombian pesos approximately 8 United States dollars as compensation for the intensive measurement carried out in the study. Table 1 shows demographic data of the participants, details of the problem, and the score range on the PHQ-9 and GAD Pseudonyms are used throughout the manuscript. Participants showed a range of affected life areas between 4 and 6 and a problem duration between 4 and 25 years.
Four participants had received psychological treatment in the past. Demographic data, problem details, and scores on depression and generalized anxiety disorder. The design of this study was a delayed multiple-baseline design across participants. Following Kratochwill and Levin , the minimum number of data points for the baseline was set at five. The protocol was implemented weekly.
Afterward, a week follow-up was conducted. Dependent variables were divided into outcome and process measures. As the main aim of this study was to explore the effect of the ACT protocol on treating comorbid depression and GAD, the outcome measures were scores on emotional symptoms depression, anxiety, and stress and pathological worry. Process measures were scores on experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, valued living, and perseverative thinking.
Since only one intervention was tested and the dependent measures were measured though automatic emails on the Internet, blinding procedures were not implemented. The Spanish version of the DASS has a hierarchical factor structure with three first-order factors Depression, Anxiety, and Stress and a second-order factor that is an overall indicator of emotional symptoms.
Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire [ Gillanders et al. The PTQ is a content-independent measure of the tendency to engage in RNT when facing negative experiences or problems. The PTQ has excellent internal consistency, high re-test reliability, and convergent and predictive validity.
A Practical Guide to Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Hayes and J. Pistorello and M. Hayes , J.
The European Journal of Psychiatry is a quarterly publication founded in and directed by Professor A. Seva until his death in The journal is indexed in different bibliographic data bases, including the Social Sciences Citation Index. It is supported by the University of Zaragoza Spain , has been open to contributions from all over the world, and also has North American and Asian-Pacific co- editors. A new stage of development of the journal has started in
Acceptance and commitment therapy ACT , typically pronounced as the word "act" is a form of psychotherapy and a branch of clinical behavior analysis. The approach was originally called comprehensive distancing. Hayes developed acceptance and commitment therapy in in order to create a mixed approach which integrates both covert conditioning and behavior therapy. The objective of ACT is not elimination of difficult feelings; rather, it is to be present with what life brings us and to "move toward valued behavior". Its therapeutic effect is a positive spiral where feeling better leads to a better understanding of the truth. ACT is developed within a pragmatic philosophy called functional contextualism. ACT is based on relational frame theory RFT , a comprehensive theory of language and cognition that is an offshoot of behavior analysis.
Focused acceptance and commitment therapy pdf
Long awaited, here is the first book to apply the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy ACT model and its powerful techniques to a broad range of disorders and clinical settings. An innovative and groundbreaking approach, ACT cuts across the traditional categories of experiential, analytic, behavioral and cognitive therapies to utilize concepts of mindfulness and acceptance and the view that language is at the core of many psychological disorders. Chapters are included on clients with multiple problems and the severely mentally ill. Further, the book cogently differentiates ACT from related modes of therapy.
Bestseller More than 50, in print. Bestseller More than 50, in print! View larger. Hayes , Kirk D. Strosahl , and Kelly G.
Личный кабинет Лиланда Фонтейна ничем не походил на остальные помещения дирекции. В нем не было ни картин, ни мягкой мебели, ни фикусов в горшках, ни антикварных часов.
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Сьюзан повернулась. Человек, попытавшийся ее удержать, выглядел растерянным и напуганным, такого лица у него она не видела. - Сьюзан, - умоляюще произнес Стратмор, не выпуская ее из рук. - Я все объясню. Она попыталась высвободиться. Коммандер не отпускал. Она попробовала закричать, но голос ей не повиновался.
А теперь уходите! - Он повернулся к Бринкерхоффу, с побледневшим лицом стоявшему возле двери. - Вы оба. - При всем моем уважении к вам, сэр, - сказала Мидж, - я бы порекомендовала послать в шифровалку бригаду службы безопасности - просто чтобы убедиться… - Ничего подобного мы делать не будем. На этом Мидж капитулировала: - Хорошо. Доброй ночи. - Она двинулась к двери.
Она посмотрела на беретту и внезапно почувствовала тошноту. - Вы действительно собираетесь пристрелить Грега Хейла. - Нет. - Стратмор хмуро посмотрел на нее и двинулся к двери. - Но будем надеяться, что он этого не узнает. ГЛАВА 76 У подъезда севильского аэропорта стояло такси с работающим на холостом ходу двигателем и включенным счетчиком.
ГЛАВА 88 Фара веспы отбрасывала контрастные тени на стены по обе стороны от узкой дорожки. Переключая передачи, Беккер мчался вперед между белокаменными стенами. Улочка имела множество поворотов и тупиков, и он быстро потерял направление. Он поднял вверх голову, надеясь увидеть Гиральду, но окружившие его со всех сторон стены были так высоки, что ему не удалось увидеть ничего, кроме тоненькой полоски начинающего светлеть неба. Беккер подумал, где может быть человек в очках в тонкой металлической оправе.
Но потом поняла, куда смотрел коммандер: на человеческую фигуру шестью этажами ниже, которая то и дело возникала в разрывах пара. Вот она показалась опять, с нелепо скрюченными конечностями. В девяноста футах внизу, распростертый на острых лопастях главного генератора, лежал Фил Чатрукьян. Тело его обгорело и почернело. Упав, он устроил замыкание основного электропитания шифровалки.