# Calculate exaample to calculate present value and future value pdf

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- The Future Value and Present Value of an Annuity
- Net Present Value (NPV)
- Understanding the Time Value of Money

*Understanding annuities is crucial for understanding loans, and investments that require or yield periodic payments. An annuity is a series of equal payments in equal time periods.*

You could run a business, or buy something now and sell it later for more, or simply put the money in the bank to earn interest. And to see what money in the future is worth now , go backwards dividing by 1. For example 1. It is a bad investment. So there you have it: work out the PV Present Value of each item, then total them up to get the NPV Net Present Value , being careful to subtract amounts that go out and add amounts that come in.

## The Future Value and Present Value of an Annuity

Understanding annuities is crucial for understanding loans, and investments that require or yield periodic payments. An annuity is a series of equal payments in equal time periods.

Usually, the time period is 1 year, which is why it is called an annuity, but the time period can be shorter, or even longer. These equal payments are called the periodic rent.

The amount of the annuity is the sum of all payments. An annuity due is an annuity where the payments are made at the beginning of each time period; for an ordinary annuity , payments are made at the end of the time period. Most annuities are ordinary annuities. Analogous to the future value and present value of a dollar, which is the future value and present value of a lump-sum payment, the future value of an annuity is the value of equally spaced payments at some point in the future.

The present value of an annuity is the present value of equally spaced payments in the future. The future value of an annuity is simply the sum of the future value of each payment. The future value of an ordinary annuity FVOA is:. And the future value of an annuity due FVAD is:. In other words, the difference is merely the interest earned in the last compounding period.

Because payments of an ordinary annuity are made at the end of the period, the last payment earns no interest, while the last payment of an annuity due earns interest during the last compounding period. Substituting these values into the equation for the future value of an ordinary annuity:.

A 20 year old wants to retire as a millionaire by the time she turns With life spans increasing, and the social security fund being depleted by baby boomers, the retirement age will have invariably risen by the time she reaches 65 years of age, probably to something even higher than 70, actually. Solution: Note that the equation for the future value of an annuity consists of 3 independent variables, and 1 dependent variable.

In other words, if we know the value of 3 of the variables, then we can determine the remaining variable. Clearly, the IRA contribution limits must be raised substantially. With the limits on IRAs, stocks are the only viable choice for investments that could possibly yield anything decent to retire on!

The present value of an annuity PVA is the sum of the present value of each annuity payment. Solution: The monthly payments constitute an annuity, whose present value is the amount of the loan. Here, we take out a loan, and thus, we already have the money, whose present value, or discounted value, is equal to the amount of the loan. The monthly payment would be the annuity payment, A. We end our discussion on annuities by noting that r cannot be solved algebraically in the formula for the present value of annuities, so, even if we know the annuity payment, the number of time periods, and the present value, we can only estimate r.

It is possible to estimate r either by plugging in values with guesses, by looking it up in special tables that plot r against the annuity payment A , or by using a graphing calculator, and graphing the value of the annuity payment as a function of interest for a given present value.

In the latter case, the interest rate is where the line representing the rate of interest intersects the line for the annuity payment.

The present value of an annuity can be easily calculated because it consists of periodic payments of equal amounts. However, many times the payments are not equal in amount, and time intervals between payments may differ, in which case the present value of an annuity must be calculated by summing the present value of each payment. These unequal payments are sometimes called a mixed stream :. Additionally, many business investments consist of both cash inflows and cash outflows. When a business wants to make an investment, one of the main factors in determining whether the investment should be made is to consider its return on investment.

Commonly, not only will cash flows be uneven, but some of the cash flows will be received and some will be paid out. Additionally, some of the cash flows will be uncertain, and the taxation of some of the transactions could also have an effect on the present value of the inflows and outflows of the investment, especially over an extended period. To decide whether to make a business investment, the business calculates what is called the net present value NPV of the investment, which is the net present value of all cash inflows minus the sum of the present value of the cash outflows, including the cost of the investment, using a discount rate DR that is judged to be a required rate of return.

If the NPV is positive, then the investment is considered worthwhile. The NPV can also be calculated for a number of investments to see which investment yields the greatest return.

In the capital budgeting of long-term investments in business, the required rate of return is called the hurdle rate or the discount rate , and should be equal to or greater than the incremental cost of capital aka marginal cost of capital , which is the weighted average of costs to issue debt or equity to finance the investment.

Closely related to the net present value is the internal rate of return IRR , calculated by setting the net present value to 0, then calculating the discount rate that would return that result. The IRR is difficult to calculate, but most spreadsheets have a formula that will return the discount rate.

Microsoft Office Excel and the free OpenOffice Calc have several formulas for calculating the present and future value of an investment as a lump-sum payment or as an annuity, and for calculating net present value. The following formulas were computed using Microsoft Office Excel , although previous versions of Excel also have these formulas.

These same formulas will also work in the free OpenOffice Calc , but the values are separated by semicolons instead of commas. To summarize the general format:. At the beginning of each year? The Pauper's Money Book shows how you can manage your money to greatly increase your standard of living.

Example: Calculating the Annuity Payment, or the Periodic Rent A 20 year old wants to retire as a millionaire by the time she turns In this example, you can see that both the payment and the present value are entered as negative values. Save, invest, and earn more money.

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Earn more from a career or from running a business. Formula for the monthly payment of a loan. Enter as a negative number if you are paying it; positive, if you are receiving it.

If there is no series of payments, then leave it blank, and enter only the future value or the present value depending on which formula you are using. If you are expecting to receive the future value, then enter it as a negative number; positive if you expect to pay the future value. Enter as a negative number, if you are paying it; positive, if you are receiving it. This is the default if omitted.

Note that in using the present value or future value formula, either the payment or the present value or future value could be blank, or they can both have values, depending on the investment.

## Net Present Value (NPV)

In finance , the net present value NPV or net present worth NPW [1] applies to a series of cash flows occurring at different times. The present value of a cash flow depends on the interval of time between now and the cash flow. It also depends on the discount rate. NPV accounts for the time value of money. It provides a method for evaluating and comparing capital projects or financial products with cash flows spread over time, as in loans, investments, payouts from insurance contracts plus many other applications. Time value of money dictates that time affects the value of cash flows. This decrease in the current value of future cash flows is based on a chosen rate of return or discount rate.

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Present and future values are the terms which are used in the financial world to calculate the future and current net worth of money which we have today with us. It is a simple idea that whatever money received today is worth more than money to be received one year from now or any other future date. It is important to calculate the time value of money so that the investor can distinguish between the worth of investment that offers them different returns at a different time. Present value is nothing but how much future sum of money worth today. It is one of the important concepts in finance and it is a basis for stock pricing, bond pricing, financial modeling, banking, and insurance, etc.

(Time Value of Money) The general formula for future value in year N (FVN) Example. • Compute the present value of a 3 year ordinary annuity with.

## Understanding the Time Value of Money

A common question that I come across in class relates to the difference between present value PV and future value FV. If you deposit some money with the bank you would expect it to earn interest even though interest rates are very low at the moment! But how much would you expect to have in two years? Rearranging the previous equation:. There are some very useful functions in Excel that can help with this.

Quantitative Methods 1 Reading 6. The Time Value of Money Subject 4. Why should I choose AnalystNotes?

Understanding the concept of present value and how to calculate the present value of a single amount is important in real-life situations. Here is the formula for present value of a single amount PV , which is the exact opposite of future value of a lump sum :. In this formula:.

*In economics and finance , present value PV , also known as present discounted value , is the value of an expected income stream determined as of the date of valuation. The present value is usually less than the future value because money has interest -earning potential, a characteristic referred to as the time value of money , except during times of zero- or negative interest rates, when the present value will be equal or more than the future value.*