Banking and financial law pdf
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Financial regulations are laws that govern banks, investment firms, and insurance companies. But they must be balanced with the need to allow capitalism to operate efficiently. As a matter of policy, Democrats generally advocate more regulations. Republicans typically promote deregulation.
Criminal banking and financial law
Financial law is the law and regulation of the insurance, derivatives, commercial banking, capital markets and investment management sectors. Financial law forms a substantial portion of commercial law , and notably a substantial proportion of the global economy, and legal billables are dependent on sound and clear legal policy pertaining to financial transactions. This is the core of Financial law. Thus, Financial law draws a narrower distinction than commercial or corporate law by focusing primarily on financial transactions, the financial market, and its participants; for example, the sale of goods may be part of commercial law but is not financial law.
Financial law may be understood as being formed of three overarching methods, or pillars of law formation and categorised into five transaction silos which form the various financial positions prevalent in finance.
For the regulation of the financial markets, see Financial regulation which is distinguished from financial law in that regulation sets out the guidelines, framework and participatory rules of the financial markets, their stability and protection of consumers; whereas financial law describes the law pertaining to all aspects of finance, including the law which controls party behaviour in which financial regulation forms an aspect of that law.
Financial law is understood as consisting of three pillars of law formation, these serve as the operating mechanisms on which the law interacts with the financial system and financial transactions generally. These three components, being market practices, case law, and regulation; work collectively to set a framework upon which financial markets operate.
Whilst regulation experienced a resurgence following the financial crisis of — , the role of case law and market practices cannot be understated. Further, whilst regulation is often formulated through legislative practices; market norms and case law serve as primary architects to the current financial system and provide the pillars upon which the markets depend.
It is crucial for strong markets to be capable of utilising both self-regulation and conventions as well as commercially mined case law. This must be in addition to regulation. An improper balance of the three pillars is likely to result in instability and rigidity within the market contributing to illiquidity.
These three pillars are underpinned by several legal concepts upon which financial law depends, notably, legal personality , set-off , and payment which allows legal scholars to categorise financial instruments and financial market structures into five legal silos ; those being 1 simple positions, 2 funded positions, 3 asset-backed positions, 4 net positions, and 5 combined positions.
These are used by academic Joanna Benjamin to highlight the distinctions between various groupings of transaction structures based on common underpinnings of treatment under the law. Three different and indeed inconsistent regulatory projects exist which form the law within financial law.
These are based on three different views of the proper nature of financial market relationships. These market practices create internal norms which parties abide by, correspondingly influencing legal rules which result when the market norms are either broken or are disputed through formal, court, judgments.
The principle role is to form soft-law ; as a source of rules of conduct which in principle have no legally binding force but have practical effects. It is these norms, particularly those provided by Financial Market Law Committees, and City of London Law Societies which the financial market operates and therefore the courts are often quick to uphold their validity.
Oftentimes "soft law" defines the nature and incidents of the relationships that participants of particular types of transactions expect. The implementation and value of soft law within the system, is particularly notable in its relationship with globalisation, consumer rights, and regulation. The FCA plays a central role in regulating the financial markets but soft law, voluntary or practice created legal schemes play a vital role. Soft law can fill market uncertainties what are produced by common law schemes.
Obvious risk that that participants become lulled into believing statements of soft law is the law. However, the perception that an opinion constitutes ipso facto a clear and widely held opinion is wrong  For example, the consumer relationship in the case of Office of Fair Trading v Abbey National  UKSC 6 where the bank was fined by the FSA for failing to handle complaints set out in soft law principle practices on broadly worded business principles which state that the bank must pay due regard to the interests of its customers and treat them fairly.
A the time, it was unclear whether Credit Derivatives were to be categorised as insurance contracts under English legislation of the Insurance Companies Act ISDA was firm in rejecting a statutory definition of insurance, stating that. In practice market participants have had few concerns as to the impacts of boundary issues between CD's and contracts of insurance.
As a result of the Potts Opinion, credit derivatives were categorised as outside of insurance contracts, which allowed them to expand without the limitations set in place by insurance legislation.
Soft law has practical effects in that it is liable in many cases to be turned into "hard law", but with verified and experienced practice evidence. This highlights a long history of incorporating and accounting for the lex mercatoria into the English law in order to facilitate financial markets.
Law merchant had been so absorbed by the 18th century that the Bills of Exchange Act could provide common law rules and merchant law in tandem. We might consider Tidal Energy Ltd v Bank of Scotland , where Lord dyson held that "a many who employee a banker is bound by the usages of bankers"  meaning that if a sort code and account number was correct, it did not matter if the name did not match.
There are risks on over-reliance on soft law sources, however. This could result in unacceptable security even if legally valid. The second category which financial law draws most of its pragmatism with regard to the standards of the markets originates in litigation.
Often, courts seek to reverse engineer matters to make commercially beneficial outcomes and so case law operates in a similar manner to market practice in producing efficient results. There are two exceptions, attempting to limit the expectations to reasonable commercial men and uphold the freedom of contract. Autonomy is at the heart of commercial law and there is the strong case for autonomy in complex financial instruments. Lord Hoffman upheld the validity of a security charge over a chose in action the bank held which it owed to a client.
Despite the formidable conceptual problems in allowing a bank to place a charge over a debt the bank itself owed to another party, the courts have been driven to facilitate market practices as best as possible.
Thus, they are careful to declare practices as conceptually impossible. Unfortunately, case coverage is unsystematic. Wholesale and international finance is patchy as a result of a preference to settle disputes through arbitration rather than through the courts.
Market participants generally prefer to settle disputes than litigate, this places a greater level of importance onto the "soft law" of market practices.
Despite these problems, there is a new breed of litigious lenders, primarily hedge funds , which has helped propel the pragmatic nature of financial case law past the crisis. The third category of law formation within the financial markets are those deriving from national and international regulatory and legislative regimes, which operate to regulate the practice of financial services.
Three regulatory lenses ought to be highlighted namely arm's length, fiduciary, and consumerist approaches to financial relationships. In the EU these might be exampled by MiFiD II, payment services directive, Securities settlement regulations and others which have resulted from the financial crisis or regulate financial trade. The regulatory policies have not all been rectified in regard to how they the new rules will be coherent with current market practices.
In addition to national and cross-national regulations on finance, additional rules are put into place in order to stabilise the financial markets by reinforcing the utility of collateral. The EU 's development of the Financial Collateral Directive is curious if we view it through the lens of only a regulatory matter. It is clear that the law here developed through market practice and private law statutory reform. The provisions are well adapted to short term transactions such as repos or derivatives.
Further harmonisation rules pertaining to commercial conflict of laws matters were clarified. The additional Geneva Securities Convention set by UNIDROIT provides a basic framework for minimum harmonised provisions governing rights conferred by the credit of securities to an account with an intermediary.
However, this international project has as of late been ineffective with only Bangladesh signing. Several legal concepts underpin the law of finance. Of these, perhaps the most central concept is that of legal personality , the idea that the law can create non-natural persons is one of the most important common myths and among the most ingenious inventions for financial practice because it facilitates the ability to limit risk by creating legal persons which are separate. Other legal concepts, such as set-off and payment are crucial to preventing systemic risk by lessening the level of gross exposure of credit risk a financial participant might be exposed to on any given transaction.
This is often mitigated through the use of collateral. If financial law is centrally concerned with the law pertaining to financial instruments or transactions, then it can be said that the legal effect of those transactions is to allocate risk. A limited liability company is an artificial creation of legislature which operates to limit the level of credit risk and exposure a financial market participant will participate within.
Lord Sumption summarised the position by stating. Subject to very limited exceptions, most of which are statutory, a company is a legal entity distinct from its shareholders. It has rights and liabilities of its own which are distinct from those of its shareholders.
Its property is its own, and not that of its shareholders [ For financial markets, the allocation of financial risk through separate legal personality allows for parties to participate in financial contracts and transfer credit risk between parties. The ambition of measuring the likelihood of future loss, that is of identifying risk , is a central part of the role legal liability plays in economics. Risk is a crucial part of financial market sectors:.
Their separate personality and property are the basis on which third parties are entitled to deal with them and commonly do deal with them . Financial markets have developed particular methods for taking security in relation to transactions, this is because collateral operates as a central method for parties to mitigate the credit risk of transacting with others. Derivatives frequently utilise collateral to secure transactions.
Large notional exposures can be reduced to smaller, single net amounts. Often, these are designed to mitigate the credit risk one party is exposed to. Two forms of financial collateralization have been developed from the Lex Mercatoria ;. A security interest may be granted with a right of use, conferring disposal powers. There is an increasing reliance on collateral in financial markets, and in particular, this is driven by regulatory margin requirements set out for derivatives transactions and financial institution borrowing from the European Central Bank.
The higher the collateral requirements, the greater demand for quality exists. For lending, it is generally regarded that there are three criteria for determining high-quality collateral. Those being assets which are or can be:. There are several benefits to having financial collateral provisions. Namely, financial reduces credit risk, meaning the cost of credit and the cost of transacting will be lowered.
The reduced insolvency risk of the counter-party, combined with more credit being available to the collateral taker will mean the collateral taker can take additional risk without having to rely on a counter-party. The primary objective of the Financial Collateral Directive was to reduce systemic risk, harmonise transactions and reduce legal uncertainty. It achieved this by exempting qualified "Financial collateral arrangements" from the performance of formal legal requirements; notably registration and notification.
Second, the collateral taker is provided effective right of use and said arrangements are exempted from being re-characterised as different security arrangements.
Perhaps most significantly, traditional insolvency rules which may invalidate a financial collateral arrangement; such as freezing assets upon entering into insolvency , are suspended. This allows a collateral taker to act without the limitation which may arise from a collateral provider entering bankruptcy.
The FCARs  focus on outlining when a financial collateral arrangement will be exempted from national insolvency and registration rules. In England, the requirements that a financial collateral arrangements only applies between non-natural persons with one being a financial institution, central bank, or public body; the FCAR has been "gold-platted"  by allowing any non-natural person to benefit. Thus, to qualify as a "financial collateral arrangement" under the FCARs, a transaction must be in writing and regard "relevant financial obligations".
The purpose of the provision is to increase the efficiency of markets and lower the transaction costs. The disapplied formal and perfection requirements accelerates the effectiveness of security through FCAR Reg 4 1 , 2 , 3 and 4 4. Two things might be said of this. Firstly, academics  have highlighted the risk of dappling statute of frauds and other requirements.
It runs real risk of repealing substantial protections which were developed, at least in English common law, because of real risks of exploitation. Extensive litigation has resulted from the determination of the FCAR regulations, specifically the meaning of " possession or control " as set out in paragraph 3.
Banking & Lending Practice 4th Edition - PDF
Financial law is the law and regulation of the insurance, derivatives, commercial banking, capital markets and investment management sectors. Financial law forms a substantial portion of commercial law , and notably a substantial proportion of the global economy, and legal billables are dependent on sound and clear legal policy pertaining to financial transactions. This is the core of Financial law. Thus, Financial law draws a narrower distinction than commercial or corporate law by focusing primarily on financial transactions, the financial market, and its participants; for example, the sale of goods may be part of commercial law but is not financial law. Financial law may be understood as being formed of three overarching methods, or pillars of law formation and categorised into five transaction silos which form the various financial positions prevalent in finance.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. In today's increasingly global and integrated financial climate, there is an amplified need for cooperation between regulators and supervisors across the globe in order to promote economic growth and maintain competitive markets. However, idiosyncrasies remain within local markets, and for those wishing to participate within them, it is necessary to understand the distinctive qualities of each. This book explores the intermediaries of the Italian financial system. It examines the banks, investment services, electronic payment institutions, insurance companies and credit rating agencies functioning in the country, to explore how Italian regulation functions within the context of a wider harmonizing trend. The authors present a study on the current control models of the Italian markets in the wake of changes induced by the privatization of public banks, the increased size and complexity of the intermediaries, the increased level of competition, and the internationalization of the financial innovation.
Covid — information for students and staff. The underlying objective of the course EU Banking and Financial Law is to enable the students to acquire a deeper understanding of the EU Laws relating to banking and finance. The course focuses on EU banking and financial law. The course is divided into three parts. The first part of the course is devoted to EU law concerning money and has as its basis the provisions regarding free movement of capital in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
Banking and Lending Practice relates the principles of the law to the practice of banking, and outlines the duties and responsibilities of the banker and the customer. It also introduces students to the principles and practices of lending. The fourth edition of Banking and Lending Practice has been revised to accommodate the many changes to banking and finance law and the way in which financial institutions are supervised and regulated. As well as explaining the changes resulting from the Wallis Report, Banking and Lending Practice, 4th Edition takes a fresh look at bank lending.
This chapter focuses on the universal principles of banking and financial regulation. Banking and financial regulation is needed to protect the financial system, which provides functions essential to economic development. Traditionally, financial regulation focused on banking because banks historically have aggregated moneys primarily by taking deposits from customers and then allocated those monies by making loans to borrowers. Traditional financial regulation is geared toward ensuring that deposit-taking banks can continue to perform these functions efficiently. In recent years, however, shadow banking has begun to overtake traditional banking.