National income and accounting pdf
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- Introduction to Macroeconomics and National Income Accounting - Topic 1
- National accounts
- National Income Accounts
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Introduction to Macroeconomics and National Income Accounting - Topic 1
National accounts or national account systems NAS are the implementation of complete and consistent accounting techniques for measuring the economic activity of a nation. These include detailed underlying measures that rely on double-entry accounting. By design, such accounting makes the totals on both sides of an account equal even though they each measure different characteristics, for example production and the income from it. As a method , the subject is termed national accounting or, more generally, social accounting. National accounting has developed in tandem with macroeconomics from the s with its relation of aggregate demand to total output through interaction of such broad expenditure categories as consumption and investment. National accounts broadly present output, expenditure, and income activities of the economic actors households, corporations, government in an economy, including their relations with other countries' economies, and their wealth net worth.
National income is an uncertain term which is used interchangeably with national dividend, national output and national expenditure. On this basis, national income has been defined in a number of ways. In common parlance, national income means the total value of goods and services produced annually in a country. It includes payments made to all resources in the form of wages, interest, rent and profits. The definitions of national income can be grouped into two classes: One, the traditional definitions advanced by Marshall, Pigou and Fisher; and two, modern definitions. This is the true net annual income or revenue of the country or national dividend. And to this, must be added income from abroad.
National Income Accounts
THE WORKING of even the least developed economy involves innumerable transactions between individuals, enterprises, and organizations, and most countries today compile and publish a varying range of primary statistics reflecting these transactions in individual branches and sectors of the economy. These statistics assist decisionmaking in the branches and sectors to which they relate. They do not, however, meet the needs of economic analysts and policymakers whose concern is to understand and influence the economic process as a whole.