Minstry of agriculture and natural resource small scale irrigation agronomy guideline pdf

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minstry of agriculture and natural resource small scale irrigation agronomy guideline pdf

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Published: 15.06.2021

Organic farming

Yet there is scarce evidence on the linkages between small-scale irrigation and the pathways through which nutrition outcomes can be achieved. Using data from a cross-sectional household survey collected in Ethiopia and Tanzania, we explored the potential for small-scale irrigation to contribute to improved diets, and identify the pathways through which irrigation affects dietary diversity as measured by the Household Dietary Diversity Score. Unadjusted comparisons show that irrigating households in both countries produced more vegetables, fruits and cash crops, are less food insecure, have a higher value of production, and have higher production diversity and dietary diversity compared to non-irrigating households. Econometric results of a simultaneous equation 3SLS model showed that irrigation leads to better household dietary diversity mainly through the pathway of increasing household incomes. However, these results are statistically significant only in the case of Ethiopia, and not in Tanzania. While irrigation increased production diversity in Ethiopia, the benefits of increased dietary diversity cannot be attributed to these changes in production after controlling for the effect of income.


The country is endowed with a wide range of natural resources such as land, irrigation potential and agro-ecological diversities suitable for the growing of various crops and need prime consideration and a more systematic utilization in order to bring a sound change and sustainable growth in the agriculture sector, which positively contributes for the overall economic development of the country. The predominant agricultural system is based on smallholder production and the sub- sector for crop production is entirely dependent on rain-fed agriculture with very limited areas currently developed under irrigation. The agriculture sector is facing a great challenge of not fulfilling the food requirement of the nation and the country is forced to depend on foreign food aid in order to feed its people accordingly. The irrigation potential of the country is estimated to be about 3. The major production constraints that impede the development of the irrigation sub- sector among others are predominantly primitive nature of the overall existing production system, shortage and increased price of agricultural inputs and limited availability of improved irrigation technologies,limited trained manpower, inadequate capacity and skills in the area of irrigation, inadequate extension services, particularly in irrigated agriculture. Therefore, the importance of irrigation development, particularly in the peasant sub-sector needs prime consideration to raise production to achieve food self-sufficiency and ensure food security at household level in particular and at country level at large.

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Organic farming is an agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Certified organic agriculture accounts for 70 million hectares globally, with over half of that total in Australia. It is defined by the use of fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure , green manure , and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting. Biological pest control , mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged.

Нуматака почти ничего не замечал. Мысли его были. Он ждал, когда зазвонит прямой телефон, но звонка все не .