Branches of psychology and its related fields pdf
File Name: branches of psychology and its related fields .zip
- What are the major branches of psychology?
- What is psychology and what does it involve?
- Psychological Science
- What is Psychology?
Psychology studies and explains the behaviour of entire living organisms. The term behaviour includes the cognitive, Conative and affective, conscious, subconscious or unconscious, implicit or explicit. It also includes the behaviour of people from infancy to old age, the normal as well as abnormal. It is very difficult to understand all these aspects of behaviour in one sphere. Hence, in order to make it convenient to study, understand and access the behaviour at different fields of life, psychology is divided into different branches.
What are the major branches of psychology?
By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior, according to the American Psychological Association. Psychology is a multifaceted discipline and includes many sub-fields of study such areas as human development, sports, health, clinical, social behavior and cognitive processes.
Psychology is really a very new science, with most advances happening over the past years or so. However, its origins can be traced back to ancient Greece, — years BC. Philosophers used to discuss many topics now studied by modern psychology, such as memory , free will vs determinism , nature vs. In the early days of psychology there were two dominant theoretical perspectives regarding how the brain worked, structuralism and functionalism.
Structuralism was the name given to the approach pioneered by Wilhelm Wundt , which focused on breaking down mental processes intro the most basic components.
The term originated from Edward Titchener, an American psychologist who had been trained by Wundt. Wundt was important because he separated psychology from philosophy by analyzing the workings of the mind in a more structured way, with the emphasis being on objective measurement and control.
Structuralism relied on trained introspection, a research method whereby subjects related what was going on in their minds while performing a certain task. However, introspection proved to be an unreliable method because there was too much individual variation in the experiences and reports of research subjects. Despite the failure of introspection Wundt is an important figure in the history of psychology as he opened the first laboratory dedicated to psychology in , and its opening is usually thought of as the beginning of modern experimental psychology.
An American psychologist named William James developed an approach which came to be known as functionalism, that disagreed with the focus of Structuralism. James argued that the mind is constantly changing and it is pointless to look for the structure of conscious experience.
Rather, he proposed the focus should be on how and why an organism does something, i. James suggested that psychologists should look for the underlying cause of behavior and the mental processes involved. This emphasis on the causes and consequences of behavior has influenced contemporary psychology. Structuralism and functionalism have since been replaced by several dominant and influential approaches to psychology , each one underpinned by a shared set of assumptions of what people are like, what is important to study and how to study it.
Psychoanalysis, founded by Sigmund Freud was the dominant paradigm in psychology during the early twentieth century. Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining insight.
The classic contemporary perspectives in psychology to adopt scientific strategies were the behaviorists , who were renowned for their reliance on controlled laboratory experiments and rejection of any unseen or unconscious forces as causes of behavior.
Later, the humanistic approach became the 'third force' in psychology and proposed the importance of subjective experience and personal growth. During the s and s, psychology began a cognitive revolution , adopting a rigorous, scientific, lab-based scientific approach with application to memory , perception , cognitive development , mental illness , and much more. The four main goals of psychology are to describe, explain, predict and change the behavior and mental processes of others.
Describing a behavior or cognition is the first goal of psychology. This can enable researchers to develop general laws of human behavior. For example, through describing the response of dogs to various stimuli, Ivan Pavlov helped develop laws of learning known as classical conditioning theory. Once researchers have described general laws behavior, the next step is to explain how or why this trend occurs.
Psychologists will propose theories which can explain a behavior. For example, classical conditioning predicts that if a person associates a negative outcome with a stimuli they may develop a phobia or aversion of the stimuli. Once psychology has described, explained and made predictions about behavior, changing or controlling a behavior can be attempted. For example, interventions based on classical conditioning, such as systematic desensitization, have been used to treat people with anxiety disorders including phobias.
Kuhn argues that a field of study can only legitimately be regarded as a science if most of its followers subscribe to a common perspective or paradigm. McLeod, S. What is psychology? Toggle navigation. What is Psychology? Saul McLeod , updated Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior, according to the American Psychological Association.
Psychology aims to be able to predict future behavior from the findings of empirical research. If a prediction is not confirmed, then the explanation it is based on might need to be revised.
How to reference this article: How to reference this article: McLeod, S. Back to top.
What is psychology and what does it involve?
By Dr. Saul McLeod , updated Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior, according to the American Psychological Association. Psychology is a multifaceted discipline and includes many sub-fields of study such areas as human development, sports, health, clinical, social behavior and cognitive processes. Psychology is really a very new science, with most advances happening over the past years or so. However, its origins can be traced back to ancient Greece, — years BC.
Psychology is the academic and applied study of mental functions and behaviors. The overarching goal of psychology is to understand the behavior, mental functions, and emotional processes of human beings. This field ultimately aims to benefit society, partly through its focus on better understanding of mental health and mental illness.
Theoretical psychology is concerned with theoretical and philosophical aspects of psychology. It is an interdisciplinary field with a wide scope of study. It focuses on combining and incorporating existing and developing theories of psychology non-experimentally. Theoretical psychology originated from the philosophy of science , with logic and rationality at the base of each new idea.
Psychology is the science of behavior, both in humans and nonhuman animals. The subject is very broad, with many sub-fields. Psychologists can work in many different research areas, and pursue a variety of careers. Provide counseling services to individuals, groups and organizations schools, hospitals to help people cope with problems. Gather data on how humans and animals respond to their environment through research that involves manipulating variables in a laboratory setting.
What is Psychology?
How do psychologists think about and study the human mind and behavior? Psychology is such a huge topic and conveying the depth and breadth of the subject can be difficult. As a result, a number of unique and distinctive branches of psychology have emerged to deal with specific subtopics within the study of the mind, brain, and behavior. While each has its own focus on psychological problems or concerns, all areas share a common goal of studying and explaining human thought and behavior. Because human behavior is so varied, the number of subfields in psychology is also constantly growing and evolving. Some of these subfields have been firmly established as areas of interest, and many colleges and universities offer courses and degree programs in these topics.
Psychology is a vast discipline, comprising of an interesting range of specialities that have emerged as the field has progressed over time. The scientific basis for modern psychology means it is ever-evolving, with new developments being made, and frontiers being explored every day by dedicated professionals and academics in the field. Here we take a look at the core branches of psychology, and how they contribute to our greater understanding of human behaviour. This branch of psychology studies irregular patterns of behaviour, thought, and emotion. This may or may not be considered in the context of a mental disorder.
Through careful observation, psychologists around the world study the connections between our mind, behavior, and surrounding environment. Recognized independently from philosophy since the late 19 th century , the field of study has quickly established itself as one of the broadest scientific disciplines. From researching unusual behaviors to helping athletes harness their peak performance, psychologists work in a wide-range of settings. This variety is likely the reason psychology is one of the fastest growing fields in the U. With all the information available, it will be much easier for you to determine which type of psychologist you want to be. Abnormal psychology dedicated to patients who display abnormal behavior or thinking.
Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior, according to the American Psychological Association. It is the study of the mind, how it works, and how it affects behavior. Psychologists and psychiatrists work together to help people with mental health conditions, but they are not quite the same. A psychologist treats a patient through psychotherapy, helping to relieve symptoms through behavioral change. The role of the psychiatrist, who is a medical doctor, focuses more on prescribing medication and other interventions to manage mental health conditions. The work of a psychologist can range from counseling individuals with anxiety to advising companies on how to build better teams.