Great houses of england and wales pdf

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great houses of england and wales pdf

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The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts and

Legal systems in the UK (England and Wales): overview

The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts and Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century.

Welsh Liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by David Lloyd George , was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party. Welsh national feeling grew over the century; Plaid Cymru was formed in and the Welsh Language Society in Established under the Government of Wales Act , Senedd Cymru — the Welsh Parliament , formerly known as the National Assembly for Wales — is responsible for a range of devolved policy matters.

At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution , development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation; the South Wales Coalfield 's exploitation caused a rapid expansion of Wales' population. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales , including Cardiff , Swansea , Newport and the nearby valleys.

Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, the economy is based on the public sector , light and service industries, and tourism. In livestock farming , including dairy farming , Wales is a net exporter, contributing towards national agricultural self-sufficiency. Wales closely shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, and a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, but the country has retained a distinct cultural identity.

Both Welsh and English are official languages; over , Welsh-speakers live in Wales, and the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.

From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. Rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness. This term was later used to refer indiscriminately to inhabitants of the Western Roman Empire. Cornwall and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons e. Wales has been inhabited by modern humans for at least 29, years. At that time sea levels were much lower than today.

The post-glacial rise in sea level separated Wales and Ireland, forming the Irish Sea. By 8, BP the British Peninsula had become an island. Some historians, such as John T. Koch , consider Wales in the Late Bronze Age as part of a maritime trading-networked culture that included other Celtic nations. The Roman conquest of Wales began in AD 48 and took 30 years to complete; the occupation lasted over years. The campaigns of conquest were opposed by two native tribes: the Silures and the Ordovices.

Roman rule in Wales was a military occupation, save for the southern coastal region of south Wales , where there is a legacy of Romanisation. The Romans used their engineering technology to extract large amounts of gold , copper and lead , as well as lesser amounts of zinc and silver.

Latin became the official language of Wales, though the people continued to speak in Brythonic. While Romanisation was far from complete, the upper classes came to consider themselves Roman, particularly after the ruling of that granted Roman citizenship to all free men throughout the Empire. Early historians, including the 6th-century cleric Gildas , have noted as a significant point in Welsh history.

The year period following the collapse of Roman rule is the most difficult to interpret in the history of Wales.

Some have theorized that the cultural dominance of the Anglo-Saxons was due to apartheid-like social conditions in which the Britons were at a disadvantage. Having lost much of what is now the West Midlands to Mercia in the 6th and early 7th centuries, a resurgent late-7th-century Powys checked Mercian advances.

Aethelbald of Mercia , looking to defend recently acquired lands, had built Wat's Dyke. According to Davies, this have been with the agreement of king Elisedd ap Gwylog of Powys, as this boundary, extending north from the valley of the River Severn to the Dee estuary, gave him Oswestry. Davies wrote of Cyril Fox 's study of Offa's Dyke: "In the planning of it, there was a degree of consultation with the kings of Powys and Gwent.

On the Long Mountain near Trelystan, the dyke veers to the east, leaving the fertile slopes in the hands of the Welsh; near Rhiwabon , it was designed to ensure that Cadell ap Brochwel retained possession of the Fortress of Penygadden. The southern and eastern parts of Great Britain lost to English settlement became known in Welsh as Lloegyr Modern Welsh Lloegr , which may have referred to the kingdom of Mercia originally and which came to refer to England as a whole.

From onwards, a series of dynastic marriages led to Rhodri Mawr 's r. Rhodri 's grandson Hywel Dda r. Maredudd 's great-grandson through his daughter Princess Angharad Gruffydd ap Llywelyn r. John Davies states that Gruffydd was "the only Welsh king ever to rule over the entire territory of Wales Thus, from about until his death in , the whole of Wales recognised the kingship of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn.

For about seven brief years, Wales was one, under one ruler, a feat with neither precedent nor successor. Within four years of the Battle of Hastings , England had been completely subjugated by the Normans. The frontier region, and any English-held lordships in Wales, became known as Marchia Wallie , the Welsh Marches , in which the Marcher Lords were subject to neither English nor Welsh law.

Owain Gwynedd 's grandson Llywelyn Fawr the Great, — , received the fealty of other Welsh lords in at the council at Aberdyfi , becoming in effect the first Prince of Wales. With Llywelyn 's death and his brother prince Dafydd 's execution, the few remaining Welsh lords did homage to Edward I. The king ruled directly in two areas: the Statute divided the north and delegated administrative duties to the Justice of Chester and Justiciar of North Wales , and further south in western Wales the King's authority was delegated to the Justiciar of South Wales.

The existing royal lordships of Montgomery and Builth remained unchanged. His son, the future Edward II , was born at Caernarfon in The rebellion failed, Owain went into hiding, and nothing was known of him after Prior to the British Industrial Revolution there were small-scale industries scattered throughout Wales. With access to local coal deposits and a harbour that connected it with Cornwall's copper mines in the south and the large copper deposits at Parys Mountain on Anglesey, Swansea developed into the world's major centre for non-ferrous metal smelting in the 19th century.

In the late 18th century, slate quarrying began to expand rapidly, most notably in north Wales. The Penrhyn Quarry , opened in by Richard Pennant , was employing 15, men by the late 19th century, [77] and along with Dinorwic Quarry , it dominated the Welsh slate trade. Although slate quarrying has been described as 'the most Welsh of Welsh industries', [78] it is coal mining which became the industry synonymous with Wales and its people.

Initially, coal seams were exploited to provide energy for local metal industries but, with the opening of canal systems and later the railways, Welsh coal mining saw an explosion in demand.

By its height in , Wales was producing almost 61 million tons of coal. Historian Kenneth Morgan described Wales on the eve of the First World War as a "relatively placid, self-confident and successful nation". The output from the coalfields continued to increase, with the Rhondda Valley recording a peak of 9. Of these, roughly 35, were killed, [81] with particularly heavy losses of Welsh forces at Mametz Wood on the Somme and the Battle of Passchendaele.

Since , the Liberal Party had held a parliamentary majority in Wales and, following the general election of , only one non-Liberal Member of Parliament, Keir Hardie of Merthyr Tydfil , represented a Welsh constituency at Westminster. Yet by , industrial dissension and political militancy had begun to undermine Liberal consensus in the southern coalfields. By , half the Welsh seats at Westminster were held by Labour politicians—the start of a Labour dominance of Welsh politics that continued into the 21st century.

After economic growth in the first two decades of the 20th century, Wales' staple industries endured a prolonged slump from the early s to the late s, leading to widespread unemployment and poverty. After , 10 per cent of Welsh conscripts aged 18 were sent to work in the coal mines, where there were labour shortages; they became known as Bevin Boys. Pacifist numbers during both World Wars were fairly low, especially in the Second World War, which was seen as a fight against fascism.

Plaid Cymru was formed in , seeking greater autonomy or independence from the rest of the UK. Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg The Welsh Language Society was formed in , in response to fears that the language might soon die out. By the end of the s, the regional policy of bringing businesses into disadvantaged areas of Wales through financial incentives had proven very successful in diversifying the industrial economy.

It was believed that the foundations for stable economic growth had been firmly established in Wales during this period, but this was shown to be optimistic after the recession of the early s saw the collapse of much of the manufacturing base that had been built over the preceding forty years. In a referendum in , Wales voted against the creation of a Welsh assembly with an 80 per cent majority. In , a second referendum on the same issue secured a very narrow majority Although we are joined with England by land, and we are part of Great Britain, Wales is a country in its own right.

Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. The Parliament has 60 Members of the Senedd MS who are elected to four-year terms under an additional member system. Forty of the MSs represent geographical constituencies , elected under the First Past the Post system. The remaining 20 MSs represent five electoral regions , each including between seven and nine constituencies, using proportional representation. The twenty areas of responsibility devolved to the Welsh Government, known as "subjects", include agriculture, economic development, education, health, housing, local government, social services, tourism, transport and the Welsh language.

The GoWA allows for the Assembly to gain primary lawmaking powers on a more extensive range of matters within the same devolved areas if approved in a referendum. Consequently, the Assembly became empowered to make laws, known as Acts of the Assembly , on all matters in the subject areas, without needing the UK Parliament's agreement. Relations between Wales and foreign states are primarily conducted through the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom , in addition to the Foreign Secretary , and the British Ambassador to the United States.

However, the Senedd has its own envoy to America, primarily to promote Wales-specific business interests. For the purposes of local government, Wales has been divided into 22 council areas since These "principal areas" [] are responsible for the provision of all local government services.

By tradition, Welsh Law was compiled during an assembly held at Whitland around by Hywel Dda , king of most of Wales between and his death in The 'law of Hywel Dda' Welsh : Cyfraith Hywel , as it became known, codified the previously existing folk laws and legal customs that had evolved in Wales over centuries.

Welsh Law emphasised the payment of compensation for a crime to the victim, or the victim's kin, rather than punishment by the ruler. English law has been the legal system of England and Wales since English law is regarded as a common law system, with no major codification of the law and legal precedents are binding as opposed to persuasive.

The court system is headed by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom which is the highest court of appeal in the land for criminal and civil cases. The Senior Courts of England and Wales is the highest court of first instance as well as an appellate court.

Minor cases are heard by the Magistrates' Courts or the County Court. From that point, Wales became a legal unit in its own right, although it remains part of the single jurisdiction of England and Wales. The Senedd has the authority to draft and approve laws outside of the UK Parliamentary system to meet the specific needs of Wales. Under powers approved by a referendum held in March , it is empowered to pass primary legislation, at the time referred to as an Act of the National Assembly for Wales but now known as an Act of the Senedd in relation to twenty subjects listed in the Government of Wales Act such as health and education.

Through this primary legislation, the Welsh Government can then also enact more specific subordinate legislation. Wales has no women's prisons; female inmates are imprisoned in England.

Courts of England and Wales

Project Britain. Please note: We have mainly written about England, as that is the country within the UK where our students live. We would be very happy for schools and visitors to send us information we can add to our website on Wales and Scotland. Most people in England live in urban areas. Towns and cities are spreading into their surrounding environment to cope with the increase populations.

The Courts of England and Wales , supported administratively by Her Majesty's Courts and Tribunals Service , are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales. The United Kingdom does not have a single unified legal system— England and Wales has one system, Scotland another, and Northern Ireland a third. There are exceptions to this rule; for example in immigration law , the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal 's jurisdiction covers the whole of the United Kingdom, while in employment law there is a single system of employment tribunals for England, Wales, and Scotland but not Northern Ireland. Additionally, the Military Court Service has jurisdiction over all members of the armed forces of the United Kingdom in relation to offences against military law. The Supreme Court is also the highest court of appeal for devolution matters, a role previously held by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. The Supreme Court has a separate administration from the other courts of England and Wales, and its administration is under a Chief Executive who is appointed by the President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.

This exciting new book on British country houses offers an unusual and magnificent look at the lifestyle, architecture, and interior design of the country house of the British Isles. From Brideshead to Downton Abbey , the country house is a subject of fantasy and curiosity, as well as a rich resource to explore the history of great architecture and decoration and the lives of landowners and those who made the houses work. With hundreds of photographs from the National Trust, and others from public and private collections, this visually lavish volume draws back the curtain on important historic homes in England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. At the same time it reveals the complex stories of these interiors, both grand and hidden, from great halls, libraries and entryways to the kitchens and stables and gardens. An insightful essay by renowned British author and historian David Cannadine explores how the idea of the country house has changed over the past forty years.


Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales, – Search within full Volume 3: Southern England. Anthony Emery Access. PDF; Export citation.


Interior Design

This resource is periodically updated for necessary changes due to legal, market, or practice developments. Significant developments affecting this resource will be described below. What's on Practical Law? Show less Show more. Ask a question.

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