Maras gang violence and security in central america pdf

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maras gang violence and security in central america pdf

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Mara Salvatrucha: A Threat to U.S. and Central American Security

Crime and violence affect the lives of millions of people in Latin America. Some consider social inequality to be a major contributing factor to levels of violence in Latin America, [1] where the state fails to prevent crime and organized crime takes over State control in areas where the State is unable to assist the society such as in impoverished communities. In the years following the transitions from authoritarianism to democracy, crime and violence have become major problems in Latin America. The region experienced more than 2. According to Lapop, one in four Latin Americans was assaulted and robbed " in Therefore, effectively addressing crime requires a holistic, multi-sectoral approach that addresses its root social, political, and economic causes.

Crime and law enforcement are often entwined in a co-evolutionary process by which the actions of one prompt behavioral changes by the other that demand new strategies from the initial actor. The first transition turned a localized gang phenomenon into a transnational one. The United States today continues to send criminal offenders back to Central America by the thousands. In this way, the American deportation strategy helped turn a Los Angeles gang phenomenon into a transnational one spanning multiple countries of the Western Hemisphere. In the late s and early s, deportees from Los Angeles tended to occupy central places within the cliques, but their importance has subsequently waned as the gangs put down more local roots. Cliques do not relate according to overarching structures of command and control, but informally, in more ad hoc and decentralized ways based on reputation and fealty.

Aguilar, Jeanette. Brief No. Accessed 12 June Accessed 17 June Amnesty International. Zero tolerance… for impunity: extrajudicial executions of children and youths since

Central America’s Turbulent Northern Triangle

Over the last three years, gang violence has killed nearly 20, people in El Salvador, propelling tens of thousands northward in search of safety. With U. Nearly 20, Salvadorans were killed from to The murder rate — an astonishing per , inhabitants in — is still sky-high at 60 per , in In neighbourhoods throughout the capital, San Salvador, residents heading to work or school pass through an informal checkpoint where a bandera — the term the gangs use for their young lookouts and errand runners — asks everyone for a dollar.

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El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras rank among the top 10 countries experiencing violence in the world, despite not being at war. This study aimed to elicit the emic perspectives of youth residing in the region on how the day-to-day generalized violence produces a pervasive threat to the overall health and human security of youth as well as the key protective factors and resiliencies at work. We conducted two separate waves of qualitative research in and over a 6-month period, which included 60 in-depth interviews and six focus groups among Salvadoran, Guatemalan and Honduran youth living in urban areas. Thematic clusters for the second meta-theme are: 1 a positive future outlook and a commitment to education; 2 transnational and local family network support; and 3 engagement in community-based youth groups. Generalized violence is conceptualized as a systemic phenomenon that is generated and reproduced through the complex interactions of structural inequities and unequal power relations. The findings of this study provide new insights into the implementation of a different approach to address the generalized violence, insights that may guide multi-sectoral health policies and interventions both in the region and transnationally. Today, Central America is experiencing an epidemic of generalized violence—defined as widespread and large-scale violence that is affecting the civilian population at large.


The COVID pandemic has disrupted the socio-economic and political landscape in Central America — again revealing the degree to which criminal actors are intertwined with local, national, regional, and even global economies. New restrictions on mobility and business activity have forced gangs and cartels to adapt, with major consequences for security and stability. ACLED data show an increase in inter-gang violence across the region. In Mexico and the Northern Triangle, gangs are competing over a shrinking criminal market, and governments are faced with rising violence as they struggle to address an unprecedented health crisis. As the pandemic wears on, gang violence seems likely to rise.

Maras: Gang Violence and Security in Central America

A surge of migrants from a region known as the Northern Triangle—comprised of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras—has cast a spotlight on a long-suffering part of the world and pushed governments in the region and beyond to reexamine relevant policies. Recent U.

Crime and violence in Latin America

Не знаю, почему Фонтейн прикидывается идиотом, но ТРАНСТЕКСТ в опасности. Там происходит что-то очень серьезное. - Мидж.  - Он постарался ее успокоить, входя вслед за ней в комнату заседаний к закрытому жалюзи окну.  - Пусть директор разбирается .

Ему не хватило лишь нескольких сантиметров. Пальцы Беккера схватили воздух, а дверь повернулась. Девушка с сумкой была уже на улице.

ИСТЕКШЕЕ ВРЕМЯ: 15:17:21 - Пятнадцать часов семнадцать минут? - Он не верил своим глазам.  - Это невозможно. Он перезагрузил монитор, надеясь, что все дело в каком-то мелком сбое. Но, ожив, монитор вновь показал то же. Чатрукьяну вдруг стало холодно. У сотрудников лаборатории систем безопасности была единственная обязанность - поддерживать ТРАНСТЕКСТ в чистоте, следить, чтобы в него не проникли вирусы. Он знал, что пятнадцатичасовой прогон может означать только одно: зараженный файл попал в компьютер и выводит из строя программу.

The Assessment of the Media by Mara and Gang Members . and Others Central America, the systematic use of violence and the brutality shown by the new type of greater attention in order to improve both the security situation for the citizens and Mateu-Gelabert, P​.

Why are so many people fleeing the region?

Развяжи, пока не явились агенты безопасности. - Они не придут, - сказала она безучастно. Хейл побледнел. - Что это. - Стратмор только сделал вид, что звонил по телефону. Глаза Хейла расширились.


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  • Read Online · Download PDF A common image of Central America in the popular media, both within the region and beyond, Violence was generally limited to gang rivalry, along with some petty crime in public. turn into a major threat to security in North America, while in Nicaragua they still remain street bands? Malte A. - 26.06.2021 at 20:09