Aims and methods of scouting pdf
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- The Boy Scouts of America’s Mission, Vision, Aims, and Methods
- The Aims and Methods of Boy Scouting
- The Boy Scouts of America’s Mission, Vision, Aims, and Methods
- Fundamental Principles
It is not holy scripture, it is not sacrosanct but it is a starting point for study, discussion and definition. These statements changed over the years but the concepts behind them have remained fairly constant; especially within the past 40 years. The methods by which the aims are achieved are listed below in random order to emphasize the equal importance of each. The Boy Scout measures himself against these ideals and continually tries to improve. The goals are high, and, as he reaches for them, he has some control over what and who he becomes.
The Boy Scouts of America’s Mission, Vision, Aims, and Methods
Scout docs. Thus, while Scouting takes many different forms adapted to the needs of each society, the fundamentals are the common denominators that bind the Movement throughout the world. The present wording of the fundamentals was adopted by the 26th World Scout Conference held in Montreal in , after a considerable number of years of study at world wide level. It represents the only authoritative statement agreed upon by the more than one hundred member organizations of WOSM.
Unless otherwise stated, all quotations in this section are from that Chapter. Definition The Scout Movement is defined as "a voluntary non-political educational movement for young people, open to all without distinction of origin, race, or creed, in accordance with the purpose, principles and method conceived by the Founder as stated below". It should be noted at the outset that it is not possible to express all aspects of the Scout Movement in one independent statement.
The last phrase of the definition given above recognizes this and emphasizes the fact that the purpose, principles and method conceived by Robert Baden-Powell, the Founder of the Scout Movement, are an integral part of the definition.
These will be dealt with in detail in the following paragraphs. The key words used in the definition, which express the main characteristics of the Movement are briefly explained below. The word Movement means a series of organized activities working towards an objective. A movement thus implies both an objective to be achieved and some type of organization to ensure this. The voluntary character of Scouting emphasizes the fact that members adhere to it by their own free will and because they accept the fundamentals of the Movement.
This remark applies both to young people and adults. As an educational Movement, Scouting is non-political, in the sense that it is not involved in the struggle for power which is the subject-matter of politics and which is usually reflected in the system of political parties.
This non-political character is constitutionally required from all national associations and is a basic characteristic of the Movement. This does not, however, mean that Scouting is completely divorced from political realities within a given country. In the first place, it is a Movement whose aim is to develop responsible citizenship; this civic education cannot be accomplished without an awareness of political realities with a country.
In the second place, it is a Movement which is based upon a number of principles - fundamentals laws and beliefs - which condition the political opinions of members of the Movement.
Scouting is defined as an educational movement. This is undoubtedly its essential characteristic and is therefore developed below as some length. In the broadest sense of the term, education can be defined as the process aiming at the total development of a person's capabilities. Scouting must be clearly distinguished from a purely recreational movement, an image which it tends to project in some parts of the world.
Despite the importance of the recreational activities in Scouting, these are conceived as a means to an end, and not as an end in themselves. Education must also be distinguished from the process of acquiring particular knowledge or skills. As defined above, education involves the development of abilities of the mind "learning to know" and the development of attitudes "learning to be", while the process of acquiring particular knowledge or skills is know as "learning to do".
While both aspects are basic to the Movement, the acquisition of particular knowledge or skills is a means to an end; that end being education. In the Founder's own words: "Here, then, lies the most important aim in the Boy Scout training - to education ; not to instruct, mind you, but to educate , that is, to draw out the boy to learn for himself, of his own desire, the things that tend to build up character in him.
Formal education is the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded, educational system running from primary school through to university. Informal education is the lifelong process whereby every individual acquired attitudes, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience and the educative influences and resources in his or her environment. Non-formal education is organized educational activity outside of the established formal education system that is intended to serve an identifiable learning clientele and identifiable learning objectives.
Scouting belongs to the last type of education since, while it takes place outside the formal educational system, it is an organized institution having an educational aim and addressed at a predetermined public. Scouting addresses itself to young people ; it is a youth movement, where the role of adults consists of assisting young people in achieving the objectives of Scouting.
While there are broad tends concerning the age-range of the young people in the Movement, there are not hard and fast rules governing this subject, and each national Scout organization determines the age-ranges applicable within it. Scouting is open to all without distinction of origin, race, class or creed. Thus one of the basic precepts of the Movement is the principle of non-discrimination, provided that the personal voluntarily adhere to its purpose, principles and method.
Purpose of the Scout Movement The purpose of a movement is the reason underlying its existence; it represents its objective or aim. The purpose of the Scout Movement is "to contribute to the development of young people in achieving their full physical, intellectual, social and spiritual potentials as individuals, as responsible citizens and as members of their local, national and international communities".
This statement of the purpose emphasizes the educational character of the Movement which aims at the total development of a person's capabilities. One of the basic principles of education is that the dimensions of the human being - namely the physical, intellectual, social and spiritual - cannot be developed in isolation from each other.
The process of a person's development is, by definition, an integrated one. It should be noted that the statement of the purpose of the Scout Movement emphasizes the fact that Scouting is but one of several factors which contribute to the development of young people.
Scouting therefore is not meant to replace family, school, religious and other social institutions; it is conceived to complement that educational impact of these institutions. It is also important to point out that the concept of responsible citizenship, which is one of the fundamental goals of Scouting, must be understood in a broad context.
Thus, a person is, first and foremost, an individual. This individual is integrated into his community, which is part of a wider political structure district, province, state, canton, etc. The latter is, in turn, a member of the international community. A responsible citizen must be aware of his rights and obligations in relation to the various communities to which he belongs.
Principles of the Scout Movement The principles are the fundamental laws and beliefs which must be observed when achieving the purpose. They represent a code of conduct which characterizes all members of the Movement. Scouting is based upon three broad principles which represent its fundamental laws and beliefs.
As their names indicate, the first refers to a person's relationship with the spiritual values of life; the second to a person's relationship with society in the broadest sense of the term; and the third, to a person's obligations towards himself.
Duty to God Under the title "Duty to God", the first of the above-mentioned principles of the Scout Movement is defined as "adherence to spiritual principles, loyalty to the religion that expresses them and acceptance of the duties resulting therefrom".
It should be noted that, by contrast to the title, the body of the text does not use the word "God", in order to make it clear that the clause also covers religions which are non-monotheistic, such as Hinduism, or those which do not recognize a personal God, such as Buddhism.
When asked where religion came into Scouting and Guiding, Baden-Powell replied "It does not come in at all. It is already there. It is a fundamental factor underlying Scouting and Guiding".
The whole educational approach of the Movement consists in helping young people to transcend the material world and go in search of the spiritual values of life. Duty to others Under this general heading, a number of basic precepts of the Movement are grouped, since all deal with a person's responsibility towards society in its difference dimensions.
Duty to others is thus defined as: "- Loyalty to one's country in harmony with the promotion of local, national and international peace, understanding and cooperation. Both are combined in a single statement in order to show that the concept of loyalty to one's country is not a narrow, chauvinistic concept, but one that is considered in a certain perspective; namely that it must be in harmony with the promotion of peace, understanding and cooperation at all levels: local, national and international.
This approach reflects faithfully the Founder's philosophy when he wrote that "we should take care, in inculcating patriotism into our boys and girls, that it is patriotism above the narrow sentiment which usually stops at one's own country, and thus inspires jealousy and enmity in dealing with others. Our patriotism should be of the wider, nobler kind which recognizes justice and reasonableness in the claims of others and which leads our country into comradeship with The first step to this end is to develop peace and goodwill within our own borders, by training our youth of both sexes to its practice as their habit of life; so that the jealousies of town against town, class against class and sect against sect no longer exist; and then to extend this good feeling beyond our frontiers towards our neighbours The multiple international gatherings of young people are only the most visible manifestation of the means used to achieve this goal, which is reached in more depth through the day to day activities of the Scout programme.
The second statement - "participation in the development of society First, in accordance with the Founder's philosophy, the service is conceived in its broadest sense, as a contribution to the development of society. Secondly, this development cannot take place at any price; it must be based upon the respect of the dignity of man and of the integrity of nature.
The concept of the dignity of man is a fundamental precept of the international community and is consecrated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It simply means that every action undertaken within Scouting must be based upon the respect of the human being. The concept of the integrity of the natural world expresses the idea of nature conservation, which has always been fundamental to Scouting. It emphasizes that the life-space of mankind on earth and the living organisms therein constitute an ecological whole, an interdependent system, and that any injury to any part is communicated to the whole system.
This concept stresses that, in the pursuit of the development goal, man must not exploit natural resources in such a manner as to damage the balance and harmony of the natural world.
Duty to self This principle is defined as "responsibility for the development of oneself". Scouting is thus based not only upon the principles of "Duty to God" and "Duty to others", but also on the principle that man should assume responsibility for the development of his own capacities. This is fully in harmony with the educational purpose of the Scout Movement, whose aim is to assist the young person in the full development of his potentials - a process which has been called the "unfolding" of the personality.
In this respect, the role of the promise and law in a fundamental one. Adherence to a Promise and Law The above-mentioned principles relating to the spiritual, social and personal dimensions constitute the fundamental laws and beliefs upon which Scouting rests. Consequently, the programme of all Scout associations must provide maximum opportunities for the growth of young people on the basis of these principles. Since the inception of the Movement, the basic tool for the formulation of these principles in a way that is understandable and appealing to young people, has been a promise and law, which all Scout associations must have.
In this respect, the original promise and law conceived by the Founder is a useful source of inspiration, since it embodies the fundamentals of the Movement.
It should be strongly emphasized, however, that the original promise and law were written for young people in England at the beginning of the 20th Century. Each national association must ensure that its promise and law is formulated in a modern language adapted to its specific culture and civilization, while remaining faithful to the fundamentals.
In order to ensure that this diversity of expression does not affect the unity of the Movement and fidelity to its fundamentals, the promises and laws of national associations, when first drafted and whenever modified, are subject to the approval of the World Organization. Scout Method A method can be defined as the means used or the steps followed in attaining the objectives. Whenever it is part of a Movement having a set if principles, as is the case with Scouting, the method must be based upon those principles.
The Scout method is defined as "a system of progressive self-education through: A promise and law. Learning by doing. Membership of small groups for example the patrol , involving, under adult guidance, progressive discovery and acceptance of responsibility and training towards self-government directed towards the development of character, and the acquisition of competence, self-reliance, dependability and capacities both to cooperate and to lead.
Progressive and stimulating programme of varied activities based on the interests of the participants, including games, useful skills, and service to the community, taking place largely in an outdoor setting in contact with nature.
Before dealing with these elements, the key concept in the definition of the Scout method should be underlined. This concept is that the Scout method is a system of progressive self-education. The fact that is it a system implies that it has to be conceived as an interdependent group of elements forming a unified and integrated whole.
That is why the word method is used in the singular, not the plural. For, while each of the elements comprising it can be considered as a method on its own right and are, in fact, considered so by other movements , we can only speak of the Scout method when all these elements are combined within an integrated educational system.
This system is based upon the idea of progressive self-education. A Promise and Law The first element of the Scout method is a promise and law. It has already been seen that the promise and law are the basic tools for the formulation of the principles of the Scout Movement.
Here, however, we are concerned not so much with the ethical principles contained in the promise and law, but more with its role as an educational method.
The Aims and Methods of Boy Scouting
Scout docs. Thus, while Scouting takes many different forms adapted to the needs of each society, the fundamentals are the common denominators that bind the Movement throughout the world. The present wording of the fundamentals was adopted by the 26th World Scout Conference held in Montreal in , after a considerable number of years of study at world wide level. It represents the only authoritative statement agreed upon by the more than one hundred member organizations of WOSM. Unless otherwise stated, all quotations in this section are from that Chapter. Definition The Scout Movement is defined as "a voluntary non-political educational movement for young people, open to all without distinction of origin, race, or creed, in accordance with the purpose, principles and method conceived by the Founder as stated below".
On my honor I will do my best To do my duty to God and my country and to obey the Scout Law; To help other people at all times; To keep myself physically strong, mentally awake, and morally straight. The Boy Scouts of America will prepare every eligible youth in America to become a responsible, participating citizen and leader who is guided by the Scout Oath and Law. Leadership development is also one of Scoutings eight methods contributing to both good character and good citizenship. The methods by which the aims are achieved are listed below in random order to emphasize the equal importance of each. The Scout measures themselves against these ideals and continually tries to improve. The goals are high, and, as they reach for them, they have some control over what and who they become.
Она стояла у второй входной двери, что была в некотором отдалении, прижимая сумку к груди. Она казалось напуганной еще сильнее, чем раньше. - Мистер, - сказала она дрожащим голосом, - я не говорила вам, как меня зовут. Откуда вы узнали. ГЛАВА 74 Шестидесятитрехлетний директор Лиланд Фонтейн был настоящий человек-гора с короткой военной стрижкой и жесткими манерами.
Aims and Methods The mission of the Boy Scouts of America is to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them.
The Boy Scouts of America’s Mission, Vision, Aims, and Methods
В лаборатории царил образцовый порядок, словно здесь никто не появлялся уже много часов. Чатрукьяну было всего двадцать три года, и он относительно недавно начал работать в команде обеспечения безопасности, однако был хорошо подготовлен и отлично знал правила: в шифровалке постоянно дежурил кто-то из работников его службы… особенно по субботам, когда не было криптографов. Он немедленно включил монитор и повернулся к графику дежурств на стене.
Это невозможно! - воскликнула она. - Вы проверили сигналы ошибки. Быть может, в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ какой-нибудь сбой и… - Все в полном порядке.
Сняв трубку, набрал номер справочной службы и через тридцать секунд получил номер главного офиса больницы. В какой бы стране вы ни находились, во всех учреждениях действует одно и то же правило: никто долго не выдерживает звонка телефонного аппарата. Не важно, сколько посетителей стоят в очереди, - секретарь всегда бросит все дела и поспешит поднять трубку. Беккер отбил шестизначный номер. Еще пара секунд, и его соединили с больничным офисом. Наверняка сегодня к ним поступил только один канадец со сломанным запястьем и сотрясением мозга, и его карточку нетрудно будет найти.
У нее красно-бело-синие волосы. Парень фыркнул. - Сегодня годовщина Иуды Табу. У всех такие… - На ней майка с британским флагом и серьга в форме черепа в одном ухе. По выражению лица панка Беккер понял, что тот знает, о ком идет речь.
Boy Scouting works toward three aims. One is growth in moral strength and character. We may define this as what the boy is himself: his personal qualities, his.
METHODS OF SCOUTING
Странно, что она чувствует нервозность в такой знакомой ей обстановке. В темноте все в Третьем узле казалось чужим. Но было что-то. Сьюзан на мгновение заколебалась и оглянулась на заблокированную дверь. Всего двадцать минут, подумала. Повернувшись к терминалу Хейла, Сьюзан вдруг уловила странный мускусный запах - очень необычный для Третьего узла.
- И что же ты ответила. Она ткнула его в ногу носком туфли. - Я сказала нет! - И, выдержав паузу, добавила: - И до вчерашней ночи это была правда.