# In statistics when to use stem and leaf or histogram pdf

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A stem-and-leaf display or stem-and-leaf plot is a device for presenting quantitative data in a graphical format, similar to a histogram , to assist in visualizing the shape of a distribution. They evolved from Arthur Bowley 's work in the early s, and are useful tools in exploratory data analysis. Stemplots became more commonly used in the s after the publication of John Tukey 's book on exploratory data analysis in

## Stem-and-Leaf Plot

A random sample of 64 people were selected to take the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test. After each person completed the test, they were assigned an intelligence quotient IQ based on their performance on the test. The resulting 64 IQs are as follows:. Once the data are obtained, it might be nice to summarize the data. We could, of course, summarize the data using a histogram. One primary disadvantage of using a histogram to summarize data is that the original data aren't preserved in the graph.

The stem-and-leaf units have to be determined. This means that we have to define what will be the stems and what will be the leaves for observations of interest. Each stem can consist of any number of digits, but each leaf can have only a single digit. Let us decide that the stem unit is 10, and the leaf unit is 1. Thus, the stem-and-leaf has the following appearance:. If a stem-and leaf is turned on its side, it looks like a histogram constructed from the digits of the data.

## Stem-and-leaf display

One simple graph, the stem-and-leaf graph or stemplot , comes from the field of exploratory data analysis. It is a good choice when the data sets are small. To create the plot, divide each observation of data into a stem and a leaf. The leaf consists of a final significant digit. For example, 23 has stem two and leaf three. The number has stem 43 and leaf two.

of the number of data values in that interval. In the stem-and-leaf plot in Example 1, the stems represent the tens place of each data value. The histogram created.

## Stem and leaf plots review

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Stem And Leaf Plot Pdf. Show or explain how you got your answer. In addition, we often merge each alternating row with its next row in order to simplify the graph for readability.

#### Visualizing data

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