Milankovitch cycles and climate change pdf

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milankovitch cycles and climate change pdf

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When looking for causes of climate change, one is interested in any process that can disturb the energy balance between incoming radiation from the Sun and outgoing terrestrial radiation from the Earth the global energy balance. This is called climate forcing , and is the focus of this fact sheet. Climate forcing "forces" the climate to change. Climate forcing can be separated into internal and external types. External forcing operates from outside the Earth's climate system, and includes changes in the global energy balance due to variations in the Earth's orbit around the Sun, and changes in the amount of energy coming from the Sun. Internal forcing operates from within the climate system, for example the change in the global energy balance due to changes in the composition of the atmosphere. On timescales of a millennium and longer, changes in the character of the Earth's orbit around the Sun can significantly affect the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of incoming solar energy.

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Antarctic climate changes have been reconstructed from ice and sediment cores and numerical models which also predict future changes. Major ice sheets first appeared 34 million years ago Ma and fluctuated throughout the Oligocene, with an overall cooling trend. Ice volume more than doubled at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Fluctuating Miocene temperatures peaked at 17—14 Ma, followed by dramatic cooling. Cooling continued through the Pliocene and Pleistocene, with another major glacial expansion at 3—2 Ma. Several interacting drivers control Antarctic climate.

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In Module 5. In this section, we will look at the recent natural changes in Earth's climate, and we will use these drivers to understand why the climate has changed. The most recent period of Earth's geologic history—spanning the last 2. This is an important period for us because it encompasses the entire period over which humans have existed—our species evolved about , years ago. We will examine how the climate has changed over this period in detail. By understanding recent natural processes of climate change, we will be able to better understand why scientists attribute the currently observed changes in global climate as being the result of human activity. How do we know about the Quaternary climate?

The evidence is clear: the main cause of climate change is burning fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal. When burnt, fossil fuels release carbon dioxide into the air, causing the planet to heat up. The climate on Earth has been changing since it formed 4. Until recently, natural factors have been the cause of these changes. Natural influences on the climate include volcanic eruptions, changes in the orbit of the Earth, and shifts in the Earth's crust known as plate tectonics.

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Milankovitch cycles

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Coupling between Grand cycles and Events in Earth’s climate during the past 115 million years

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. These events have rarely been considered together within extended time series for potential correlation with long-term multi-million year, Myr cycling. These cyclicities were previously attributed either to astronomical or tectonic variations. The connection between cyclic and acyclic processes, as triggers or feedbacks, is very likely.

Both individuals and organizations that work with arXivLabs have embraced and accepted our values of openness, community, excellence, and user data privacy. Have an idea for a project that will add value for arXiv's community? Learn more about arXivLabs and how to get involved. Authors: R. Comments: 24 pages, 7 figures. Conclusions revised in light of comments received, see Acknowledgements. EP Cite as: arXiv


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