Chemistry of acids and bases pdf

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chemistry of acids and bases pdf

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Chapter 12 — Acid-Base Chemistry Introduction The terms acid and base have been used for several hundred years. Acids were substances that had a sour taste, were corrosive, and reacted with substances called bases.

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Acids are substances that contain one or more hydrogen atoms that, in solution , are released as positively charged hydrogen ions. An acid in a water solution tastes sour, changes the colour of blue litmus paper to red, reacts with some metals e. Bases are substances that taste bitter and change the colour of red litmus paper to blue. Bases react with acids to form salts and promote certain chemical reactions base catalysis. Acids and bases are assigned a value between 0 and 14, the pH value, according to their relative strengths. Pure water , which is neutral, has a pH of 7. A solution with a pH less than 7 is considered acidic, and a solution with a pH greater than 7 is considered basic, or alkaline.

An acid—base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. It can be used to determine pH. Their importance becomes apparent in analyzing acid—base reactions for gaseous or liquid species, or when acid or base character may be somewhat less apparent. The first of these concepts was provided by the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier , around It is important to think of the acid-base reaction models as theories that complement each other. The first scientific concept of acids and bases was provided by Lavoisier in around

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Make sure that your printout includes all content from the page. If it doesn't, try opening this guide in a different browser and printing from there sometimes Internet Explorer works better, sometimes Chrome, sometimes Firefox, etc. This may have been interesting drama but not very good chemistry. Consider the relative masses involved: an ion of mass 1 needs an ion of mass 17 to make water, while an ion of mass 17 needs an ion of mass 1 to make water. Which process do you think will be easier? Compare that to the fact that we occasionally purposefully ingest substances such as citrus fruits, vinegar, and wine—all of which contain acids. Of course, some parts of the body, such as the eyes, are extremely sensitive to acids as well as bases.

Chapter 12 – Acid-Base Chemistry

Acids and bases are common substances found in many every day items, from fruit juices and soft drinks to soap. In this chapter, we will examine the properties of acids and bases, and learn about the chemical nature of these important compounds. We will cover pH, and how to calculate the pH of a solution. The candy's slogan, "Sour.

For details on it including licensing , click here. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author but see below , don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.

Overview of Acids and Bases

Acids and bases have been known for a long time.


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