# Methogological common features of report writing process in both qualitative and quantitative pdf

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Published on June 12, by Pritha Bhandari. Revised on February 15, Quantitative research is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data. It can be used to find patterns and averages, make predictions, test causal relationships, and generalize results to wider populations. Quantitative research is the opposite of qualitative research , which involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data e.

## Quantitative Research: Definition, Methods, Types and Examples

It usually involves collecting and converting data into numerical form so that statistical calculations can be made and conclusions drawn.

Researchers will have one or more hypotheses. These are the questions that they want to address which include predictions about possible relationships between the things they want to investigate variables. In order to find answers to these questions, the researchers will also have various instruments and materials e. Data is collected by various means following a strict procedure and prepared for statistical analysis.

Nowadays, this is carried out with the aid of sophisticated statistical computer packages. The analysis enables the researchers to determine to what extent there is a relationship between two or more variables. This could be a simple association e. Statistical analysis permits researchers to discover complex causal relationships and to determine to what extent one variable influences another. The results of statistical analyses are presented in journals in a standard way, the end result being a P value.

For people who are not familiar with scientific research jargon, the discussion sections at the end of articles in peer reviewed journals usually describe the results of the study and explain the implications of the findings in straightforward terms. Objectivity is very important in quantitative research. Consequently, researchers take great care to avoid their own presence, behaviour or attitude affecting the results e.

They also critically examine their methods and conclusions for any possible bias. Researchers go to great lengths to ensure that they are really measuring what they claim to be measuring. For example, if the study is about whether background music has a positive impact on restlessness in residents in a nursing home, the researchers must be clear about what kind of music to include, the volume of the music, what they mean by restlessness, how to measure restlessness and what is considered a positive impact.

This must all be considered, prepared and controlled in advance. External factors, which might affect the results, must also be controlled for. In the above example, it would be important to make sure that the introduction of the music was not accompanied by other changes e. Some possible contributing factors cannot always be ruled out but should be acknowledged by the researchers. The main emphasis of quantitative research is on deductive reasoning which tends to move from the general to the specific.

This is sometimes referred to as a top down approach. The validity of conclusions is shown to be dependent on one or more premises prior statements, findings or conditions being valid. If the premises of an argument are inaccurate, then the argument is inaccurate. This type of reasoning is often also associated with the fictitious character Sherlock Holmes. However, most studies also include an element of inductive reasoning at some stage of the research see section on qualitative research for more details.

Researchers rarely have access to all the members of a particular group e. However, they are usually interested in being able to make inferences from their study about these larger groups. However, the extent to which generalizations are possible depends to a certain extent on the number of people involved in the study, how they were selected and whether they are representative of the wider group.

For example, generalizations about psychiatrists should be based on a study involving psychiatrists and not one based on psychology students. In most cases, random samples are preferred so that each potential participant has an equal chance of participating but sometimes researchers might want to ensure that they include a certain number of people with specific characteristics and this would not be possible using random sampling methods.

Generalizability of the results is not limited to groups of people but also to situations. It is presumed that the results of a laboratory experiment reflect the real life situation which the study seeks to clarify.

When looking at results, the P value is important. P stands for probability. It measures the likelihood that a particular finding or observed difference is due to chance. The P value is between 0 and 1. The closer the result is to 0, the less likely it is that the observed difference is due to chance.

Qualitative research is the approach usually associated with the social constructivist paradigm which emphasises the socially constructed nature of reality. It is about recording, analysing and attempting to uncover the deeper meaning and significance of human behaviour and experience, including contradictory beliefs, behaviours and emotions.

The approach adopted by qualitative researchers tends to be inductive which means that they develop a theory or look for a pattern of meaning on the basis of the data that they have collected. This involves a move from the specific to the general and is sometimes called a bottom-up approach. However, most research projects also involve a certain degree of deductive reasoning see section on quantitative research for more details. Qualitative researchers do not base their research on pre-determined hypotheses.

Nevertheless, they clearly identify a problem or topic that they want to explore and may be guided by a theoretical lens - a kind of overarching theory which provides a framework for their investigation. The approach to data collection and analysis is methodical but allows for greater flexibility than in quantitative research. Data is collected in textual form on the basis of observation and interaction with the participants e.

It is not converted into numerical form and is not statistically analysed. Data collection may be carried out in several stages rather than once and for all. The researchers may even adapt the process mid-way, deciding to address additional issues or dropping questions which are not appropriate on the basis of what they learn during the process.

In some cases, the researchers will interview or observe a set number of people. In other cases, the process of data collection and analysis may continue until the researchers find that no new issues are emerging. This may mean adopting a less formal and less rigid approach than that used in quantitative research. It is believed that people are constantly trying to attribute meaning to their experience. Consequently, the methods used may be more open-ended, less narrow and more exploratory particularly when very little is known about a particular subject.

The researchers are free to go beyond the initial response that the participant gives and to ask why, how, in what way etc. In this way, subsequent questions can be tailored to the responses just given. Qualitative research often involves a smaller number of participants.

This may be because the methods used such as in-depth interviews are time and labour intensive but also because a large number of people are not needed for the purposes of statistical analysis or to make generalizations from the results.

The objectives of the two types of research and their underlying philosophical assumptions are simply different. The pragmatic approach to science involves using the method which appears best suited to the research problem and not getting caught up in philosophical debates about which is the best approach.

Pragmatic researchers therefore grant themselves the freedom to use any of the methods, techniques and procedures typically associated with quantitative or qualitative research.

They recognise that every method has its limitations and that the different approaches can be complementary. They may also use different techniques at the same time or one after the other. For example, they might start with face-to-face interviews with several people or have a focus group and then use the findings to construct a questionnaire to measure attitudes in a large scale sample with the aim of carrying out statistical analysis.

Depending on which measures have been used, the data collected is analysed in the appropriate manner. However, it is sometimes possible to transform qualitative data into quantitative data and vice versa although transforming quantitative data into qualitative data is not very common. Being able to mix different approaches has the advantages of enabling triangulation. Triangulation is a common feature of mixed methods studies. It involves, for example:.

In some studies, qualitative and quantitative methods are used simultaneously. In others, first one approach is used and then the next, with the second part of the study perhaps expanding on the results of the first.

For example, a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews or focus group discussions might serve to obtain information which will then be used to contribute towards the development of an experimental measure or attitude scale, the results of which will be analysed statistically. As they aim to bring about positive change in the lives of the research subjects, their approach is sometimes described as emancipatory. It is not a neutral stance. The researchers are likely to have a political agenda and to try to give the groups they are studying a voice.

As they want their research to directly or indirectly result in some kind of reform, it is important that they involve the group being studied in the research, preferably at all stages , so as to avoid further marginalising them. The researchers may adopt a less neutral position than that which is usually required in scientific research. This might involve interacting informally or even living amongst the research participants who are sometimes referred to as co-researchers in recognition that the study is not simply about them but also by them.

The findings of the research might be reported in more personal terms, often using the precise words of the research participants. Whilst this type of research could by criticised for not being objective, it should be noted that for some groups of people or for certain situations, it is necessary as otherwise the thoughts, feelings or behaviour of the various members of the group could not be accessed or fully understood.

Vulnerable groups are rarely in a position of power within society. For this reason, researchers are sometimes members of the group they are studying or have something in common with the members of the group.

Is Alzheimer's disease hereditary? Is there a test that can predict Alzheimer's disease? How is Alzheimer's disease diagnosed? Diagnosis of dementia Disclosure of the diagnosis Facing the diagnosis Taking care of yourself Developing coping strategies Maintaining a social network Attending self-help groups Accepting help from others Dealing with feelings and emotions Changing roles and how you see yourself On a more positive note Organising family support Dealing with practical issues Financial and administrative matters Driving Safety issues Employment issues Healthy eating Contact and communication Speaking, listening and communication Signs, symbols and texts Personal relationships Talking to children and adolescents Changing behaviour Lack of interest in hobbies Disorientation Managing everyday tasks Keeping an active mind Services Caring for someone with dementia The onset of the disease Diagnosis: should the person with dementia be told?

Dealing with emotions Arranging who will be responsible for care Determining to what extent you can provide care How will Alzheimer's disease affect independent living? What progress so far? Acknowledgements References Intercultural care and support Introduction Understanding dementia and help seeking Diagnosis, assessment and treatment.

Support and care Professional and informal carers Conclusions References Members of the expert working group Terms and concepts Dementia as a disability? Why PharmaCog? Who are the PharmaCog partners? Academic Partners Pharmaceutical companies SMEs, patient group and regulatory authorities What do the partners bring to the project?

Coordination Management approach Collaboration with other projects Who financially supports PharmaCog? How will PharmaCog benefit patients? Why do we need research? Who can take part in research? Benefits of taking part in research Risks in taking part in research Questions to ask about research Tests used in dementia research Ethical issues Types of research Philosophies guiding research The four main approaches Research methods Clinical trials What is a clinical trial?

## Mixed Methods Research

A research question is 'a question that a research project sets out to answer'. Investigation will require data collection and analysis, and the methodology for this will vary widely. Good research questions seek to improve knowledge on an important topic, and are usually narrow and specific. To form a research question, one must determine what type of study will be conducted such as a qualitative, quantitative, or mixed study. Additional factors, such as project funding, may not only affect the research question itself but also when and how it is formed during the research process. The answer to a research question will help address a research problem or question. Considerations, such as project funding or methodological approaches may influence the research process, including when and how the research question is developed.

It usually involves collecting and converting data into numerical form so that statistical calculations can be made and conclusions drawn. Researchers will have one or more hypotheses. These are the questions that they want to address which include predictions about possible relationships between the things they want to investigate variables. In order to find answers to these questions, the researchers will also have various instruments and materials e. Data is collected by various means following a strict procedure and prepared for statistical analysis.

methodological and philosophical stances that appear to contradict one another. Characteristic properties of qualitative methods Different suggestions (see Table 2) different steps and sometimes even the writing of the research report. more in general, that both qualitative or quantitative methods.

## An introduction to quantitative research

What is qualitative research? We define qualitative research as an iterative process in which improved understanding to the scientific community is achieved by making new significant distinctions resulting from getting closer to the phenomenon studied. This formulation is developed as a tool to help improve research designs while stressing that a qualitative dimension is present in quantitative work as well. Additionally, it can facilitate teaching, communication between researchers, diminish the gap between qualitative and quantitative researchers, help to address critiques of qualitative methods, and be used as a standard of evaluation of qualitative research.

### The four main approaches

Mixed Methods Research is the product of such evolution. It is a relatively new kind of research methodology, whereby the benefits of both qualitative and quantitative research are combined for better and reliable results. This paper discusses the scope of mixed methods research, its characteristics, types; and evaluates it as a research methodology. Mixed methods research is a growing area of methodological choice for many academics and researchers from across a variety of discipline areas. With the development and perceived legitimacy of both quantitative and qualitative research in the social and human sciences, mixed methods research, employing the combination of both quantitative and qualitative research, has gained popularity. This popularity is because research methodology continues to evolve and develop and mixed methods research is another step forward, utilizing the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative methods.

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Quantitative research is defined as a systematic investigation of phenomena by gathering quantifiable data and performing statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques. Quantitative research collects information from existing and potential customers using sampling methods and sending out online surveys, online polls, questionnaires, etc.

The term “mixed methods” refers to an emergent methodology of research that The core characteristics of a well-designed mixed methods study in PCMH Collecting and analyzing both quantitative (closed-ended) and qualitative Using rigorous procedures in collecting and analyzing data appropriate to each method's.