Science good bad and bogus pdf

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Coronavirus: Fake and misleading stories that went viral this week

But fabricated stories posing as serious journalism are not likely to go away as they have become a means for some writers to make money and potentially influence public opinion. Even as Americans recognize that fake news causes confusion about current issues and events, they continue to circulate it. Much of the fake news that flooded the internet during the election season consisted of written pieces and recorded segments promoting false information or perpetuating conspiracy theories.

The news media has written a lot about fake news and other forms of misinformation, but scholars are still trying to understand it — for example, how it travels and why some people believe it and even seek it out.

Science , March DOI: Concern over the problem is global. However, much remains unknown regarding the vulnerabilities of individuals, institutions, and society to manipulations by malicious actors. A new system of safeguards is needed. Below, we discuss extant social and computer science research regarding belief in fake news and the mechanisms by which it spreads. Fake news has a long history, but we focus on unanswered scientific questions raised by the proliferation of its most recent, politically oriented incarnation.

Beyond selected references in the text, suggested further reading can be found in the supplementary materials. May Available at SSRN. We find consistent evidence that the tendency to ascribe profundity to randomly generated sentences — pseudo-profound bullshit receptivity — correlates positively with perceptions of fake news accuracy, and negatively with the ability to differentiate between fake and real news media truth discernment.

Relatedly, individuals who overclaim regarding their level of knowledge i. Conversely, the tendency to ascribe profundity to prototypically profound non-bullshit quotations is not associated with media truth discernment; and both profundity measures are positively correlated with willingness to share both fake and real news on social media.

Our results suggest that belief in fake news has similar cognitive properties to other forms of bullshit receptivity, and reinforce the important role that analytic thinking plays in the recognition of misinformation. Psychological Science , September Because misinformation can lead to poor decisions about consequential matters and is persistent and difficult to correct, debunking it is an important scientific and public-policy goal. Persistence was stronger and the debunking effect was weaker when audiences generated reasons in support of the initial misinformation.

A detailed debunking message correlated positively with the debunking effect. Surprisingly, however, a detailed debunking message also correlated positively with the misinformation-persistence effect.

Journal of Experimental Political Science , One reason for this persistence is the manner in which people make causal inferences based on available information about a given event or outcome. As a result, false information may continue to influence beliefs and attitudes even after being debunked if it is not replaced by an alternate causal explanation.

We test this hypothesis using an experimental paradigm adapted from the psychology literature on the continued influence effect and find that a causal explanation for an unexplained event is significantly more effective than a denial even when the denial is backed by unusually strong evidence. This result has significant implications for how to most effectively counter misinformation about controversial political events and outcomes.

British Journal of Political Science , Refuting rumors with statements from unlikely sources can, under certain circumstances, increase the willingness of citizens to reject rumors regardless of their own political predilections. Such source credibility effects, while well known in the political persuasion literature, have not been applied to the study of rumor.

Though source credibility appears to be an effective tool for debunking political rumors, risks remain. Attempting to quash rumors through direct refutation may facilitate their diffusion by increasing fluency. The empirical results find that merely repeating a rumor increases its power. Facts mingle with half-truths and untruths to create factitious informational blends FIBs that drive speculative politics. We specify an information environment that mirrors and contributes to a polarized political system and develop a methodology that measures the interaction of the two.

We do so by examining the evolution of two comparable claims during the presidential campaign in three streams of data: 1 web pages, 2 Google searches, and 3 media coverage. We find that the web is not sufficient alone for spreading misinformation, but it leads the agenda for traditional media.

We find no evidence for equality of influence in network actors. The use of social media in such situations comes with the caveat that new information being released piecemeal may encourage rumors, many of which remain unverified long after their point of release. Little is known, however, about the dynamics of the life cycle of a social media rumor.

In this paper we present a methodology that has enabled us to collect, identify and annotate a dataset of rumor threads 4, tweets associated with 9 newsworthy events.

We analyze this dataset to understand how users spread, support, or deny rumors that are later proven true or false, by distinguishing two levels of status in a rumor life cycle i. The identification of rumors associated with each event, as well as the tweet that resolved each rumor as true or false, was performed by journalist members of the research team who tracked the events in real time.

Our study shows that rumors that are ultimately proven true tend to be resolved faster than those that turn out to be false.

Whilst one can readily see users denying rumors once they have been debunked, users appear to be less capable of distinguishing true from false rumors when their veracity remains in question. In fact, we show that the prevalent tendency for users is to support every unverified rumor. We also analyze the role of different types of users, finding that highly reputable users such as news organizations endeavor to post well-grounded statements, which appear to be certain and accompanied by evidence.

Nevertheless, these often prove to be unverified pieces of information that give rise to false rumors. Our study reinforces the need for developing robust machine learning techniques that can provide assistance in real time for assessing the veracity of rumors. The findings of our study provide useful insights for achieving this aim. Journalism Practice , Through textual analysis, this paper demonstrates how a Fifth Estate comprised of bloggers, columnists and fake news organizations worked to relocate mainstream journalism back to within its professional boundaries.

This experimental study demonstrates that the independent experience of two emotions, anger and anxiety, in part determines whether citizens consider misinformation in a partisan or open-minded fashion. Anger encourages partisan, motivated evaluation of uncorrected misinformation that results in beliefs consistent with the supported political party, while anxiety at times promotes initial beliefs based less on partisanship and more on the information environment.

However, exposure to corrections improves belief accuracy, regardless of emotion or partisanship. The results indicate that the unique experience of anger and anxiety can affect the accuracy of political beliefs by strengthening or attenuating the influence of partisanship. The prediction of the chances that a particular news item is intentionally deceptive is based on the analysis of previously seen truthful and deceptive news.

A scarcity of deceptive news, available as corpora for predictive modeling, is a major stumbling block in this field of natural language processing NLP and deception detection.

This paper discusses three types of fake news, each in contrast to genuine serious reporting, and weighs their pros and cons as a corpus for text analytics and predictive modeling. Filtering, vetting, and verifying online information continues to be essential in library and information science LIS , as the lines between traditional news and online information are blurring.

Communication Research , , Vol. Using survey data collected during the Israeli election campaign, the study provides evidence for an indirect positive effect of fake news viewing in fostering the feelings of inefficacy, alienation, and cynicism, through the mediator variable of perceived realism of fake news. Within this process, hard news viewing serves as a moderator of the association between viewing fake news and their perceived realism. It was also demonstrated that perceived realism of fake news is stronger among individuals with high exposure to fake news and low exposure to hard news than among those with high exposure to both fake and hard news.

Overall, this study contributes to the scientific knowledge regarding the influence of the interaction between various types of media use on political effects. There are both positive and negative effects of social media coverage of events.

It can be used by authorities for effective disaster management or by malicious entities to spread rumors and fake news. The aim of this paper is to highlight the role of Twitter during Hurricane Sandy to spread fake images about the disaster. We identified 10, unique tweets containing fake images that were circulated on Twitter during Hurricane Sandy.

We performed a characterization analysis, to understand the temporal, social reputation and influence patterns for the spread of fake images. Eighty-six percent of tweets spreading the fake images were retweets, hence very few were original tweets.

Our results showed that the top 30 users out of 10, users 0. Next, we used classification models, to distinguish fake images from real images of Hurricane Sandy. Best results were obtained from Decision Tree classifier, we got 97 percent accuracy in predicting fake images from real. Also, tweet-based features were very effective in distinguishing fake images tweets from real, while the performance of user-based features was very poor.

Our results showed that automated techniques can be used in identifying real images from fake images posted on Twitter. International Journal of Public Opinion Research , Results indicate that exposure to news coverage of satire can influence knowledge, opinion, and political trust. Additionally, regular satire viewers may experience stronger effects on opinion, as well as increased internal efficacy, when consuming news coverage about issues previously highlighted in satire programming.

Journal of Communication Inquiry , Based on interviews with 61 racially diverse high school students, it discusses how adolescents become informed about current events and why they prefer certain news formats to others. The results reveal changing ways news information is being accessed, new attitudes about what it means to be informed, and a youth preference for opinionated rather than objective news.

This does not indicate that young people disregard the basic ideals of professional journalism but, rather, that they desire more authentic renderings of them. Keywords: alt-right, credibility, truth discovery, post-truth era, fact checking, news sharing, news literacy, misinformation, disinformation.

Facebook and the newsroom: 6 questions for Siva Vaidhyanathan. Skip to content. About The Author. She also serves on the board of directors of the Education Writers Association.

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A number of respondents to this canvassing about the likely future of social and civic innovation shared concerns. Some said that technology causes more problems than it solves. Some said it is likely that emerging worries over the impact of digital life will be at least somewhat mitigated as humans adapt. Some said it is possible that any remedies may create a new set of challenges. Some of these remarks of concern happen to also include comments about innovations that may emerge. Concerns are organized under four subthemes: Something is rotten in the state of technology; technology use often disconnects or hollows out a community; society needs to catch up and better address the threats and opportunities of tech; and despite current trends, there is reason to hope for better days. Examples include: the decentralized web, end-to-end encryption, AI and machine learning, social media.

We've all been there. A coronavirus post that could be true and sounds about right, but how do we know it's accurate? To help, the BBC's disinformation-monitoring team is fact-checking and verifying some of the most widely shared fake and misleading stories of the week. A video claiming exactly that has been shared thousands of times and clocked-up more than one million views in a few days. The video, shot from a tall building somewhere in New York, scans across apartment buildings that are apparently blaring out the song Juicy by deceased Brooklyn rapper Biggie. However, the posts are fake. We know this because we found that, tipped off by a comment on one of the posts, the recording appears to be a match for a video from a Jay-Z concert in

Science: Good Bad, and Bogus

H undreds of thousands of scientists took to streets around the world in April. I really wish this were true. Sadly, much evidence suggests otherwise.

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A brief detour from chemistry, branching out into science in general today. The vast majority of people will get their science news from online news site articles, and rarely delve into the research that the article is based on. Note that this is not a comprehensive overview, nor is it implied that the presence of one of the points noted automatically means that the research should be disregarded. This is merely intended to provide a rough guide to things to be alert to when either reading science articles or evaluating research. EDIT 2 April : Update to version 3, taking into account a range of feedback and also sprucing up the design a little.

But fabricated stories posing as serious journalism are not likely to go away as they have become a means for some writers to make money and potentially influence public opinion. Even as Americans recognize that fake news causes confusion about current issues and events, they continue to circulate it. Much of the fake news that flooded the internet during the election season consisted of written pieces and recorded segments promoting false information or perpetuating conspiracy theories.

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Fake news and the spread of misinformation: A research roundup