Chapter 8 ethical social and political issues in e commerce pdf
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- E-Commerce 2012, 8th Edition
- Social Issues in Electronic Commerce: Implications for Policy Makers
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- Chapter 8 Ethical, Social, and Political Issues in E-commerce.
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E-Commerce 2012, 8th Edition
Defining the rights of people to express their ideas and the property rights of copyright owners are just two of many ethical, social, and political issues raised by the rapid evolution of e-commerce. The ethical, social, and political issues raised in e-commerce, provide a framework for organizing the issues, and make recommendations for managers who are given the responsibility of operating e-commerce companies within commonly accepted standards of appropriateness.
Understanding Ethical, Social, And Political Issues in E-Commerce Internet and its use in e-commerce have raised pervasive ethical, social and political issues on a scale unprecedented for computer technology.
Controversies over information are often in fact disagreements over power, wealth, influence, and other things thought to be valuable. Like other technologies such as steam, electricity, telephones, and television, the Internet and ecommerce can be used to achieve social progress, and for the most part, this has occurred.
However, the same technologies can be used to commit crimes, despoil the environment, and threaten cherished social values. Before automobiles, there was very little interstate crime and very little federal jurisdiction over crime. Many business firms and individuals are benefiting from the commercial development of the Internet, but this development also exacts a price from individuals, organizations, and societies. These costs and benefits must be carefully considered by those seeking to make ethical and socially responsible decisions in this new environment.
The major ethical, social, and political issues that have developed around e commerce over the past seven to eight years can be loosely categorized into four major dimensions: information rights, property rights, governance, and public safety and welfare.
Some of the ethical, social, and political issues raised in each of these areas include the following:. To illustrate, imagine that at any given moment society and individuals are more or less in an ethical equilibrium brought about by a delicate balancing of individuals, social organizations, and political institutions.
Individuals know what is expected of them, social organizations such as business firms know their limits, capabilities, and roles and political institutions provide a supportive framework of market regulation, banking and commercial law that provides sanctions against violators.
Now, imagine we drop into the middle of this calm setting a powerful new technology such as the Internet and e-commerce. Suddenly individuals, business firms, and political institutions are confronted by new possibilities of behavior. For instance, individuals discover that they can download perfect digital copies of music tracks, something which, under the old technology of CDs, would have been impossible.
The introduction of the Internet and e-commerce impacts individuals, societies, and political institutions. The record companies, courts, and Congress were not prepared at first to cope with the onslaught of online digital copying. How can you make good decisions in this type of situation? Before reviewing the four moral dimensions of e-commerce in greater depth, we will briefly review some basic concepts of ethical reasoning that you can use as a guide to ethical decision making, and provide general reasoning principles about social political issues of the Internet that you will face in the future.
Ethics is at the heart of social and political debates about the Internet. Ethics is the study of principles that individuals and organizations can use to determine right and wrong courses of action. It is assumed in ethics that individuals are free moral agents who are in a position to make choices. Extending ethics from individuals to business firms and even entire societies can be difficult, but it is not impossible.
As long as there is a decision-making body or individual such as a Board of Directors or CEO in a business firm or a governmental body in a society , their decisions can be judged against a variety of ethical principles. If you understand some basic ethical principles, your ability to reason about larger social a nd political debates will be improved. In western culture, there are ability and liability principles that all ethical schools of thought share: responsibility, account- liability.
Responsibility means that as free moral agents, individuals, organizations and societies are responsible for the actions they take.
Accountability means that individuals, organizations, and societies should be held accountable to others for the consequences of their actions. The third principle -liability - extends the concepts of responsibility and accountability to the area of law. Liability is a feature of political systems in which a body of law is in place that permits individuals to recover the damages done to them by other actors, systems, or organizations.
Due process is a feature of law-governed societies and refers to a process in which laws are known and understood and there is an ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that the laws have been applied correctly.
Ethical, social, and political controversies usually present themselves as dilemmas. A dilemma is a situation in which there are at least two diametrically opposed actions, each of which supports a desirable outcome. When confronted with a situation that seems to present ethical dilemmas, how can you analyze and reason about the situation?
The following is a five step process that should help. The Internet and the Web provide an ideal environment for invading the personal privacy of millions of users on a scale unprecedented in history.
Perhaps no other recent issue has raised as much widespread social and political concern as protecting the privacy of over million Web users in the United States alone.
The major ethical issues related to ecommerce and privacy includes the following:Under what conditions should we invade the privacy of others? What legitimates intruding into others lives through unobtrusive surveillance, market research, or other means? The major political issues related to ecommerce and privacy concern the development of statutes that govern the relations between record keepers and individuals.
Privacy is the moral right of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance or interference from other individuals or organizations, including the state. Privacy is a girder supporting freedom: Without the privacy required to think, write, plan, and associate independently and without fear, social and political freedom is weakened, and perhaps destroyed. Information privacy is a subset of privacy. The right to information privacy includes both the claim that certain information should not be collected at all by governments or business firms, and the claim of individuals to control over personal of whatever information that is collected about them.
Individual control over personal information is at the core of the privacy concept. Due process also plays an important role in defining privacy. The best statement of due process in record keeping is given by the Fair Information Practices doctrine developed in the early s and extended to the online privacy debate in the late s described below. In the United States, Canada, and Germany, rights to privacy are explicitly granted in or can be derived from, founding documents such as constitutions, as well as in specific statutes.
In England and the United States, there is also protection of privacy in the common law, a body of court decisions involving torts or personal injuries.
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Social Issues in Electronic Commerce: Implications for Policy Makers
Defining the rights of people to express their ideas and the property rights of copyright owners are just two of many ethical, social, and political issues raised by the rapid evolution of e-commerce. The ethical, social, and political issues raised in e-commerce, provide a framework for organizing the issues, and make recommendations for managers who are given the responsibility of operating e-commerce companies within commonly accepted standards of appropriateness. Understanding Ethical, Social, And Political Issues in E-Commerce Internet and its use in e-commerce have raised pervasive ethical, social and political issues on a scale unprecedented for computer technology. Controversies over information are often in fact disagreements over power, wealth, influence, and other things thought to be valuable. Like other technologies such as steam, electricity, telephones, and television, the Internet and ecommerce can be used to achieve social progress, and for the most part, this has occurred. However, the same technologies can be used to commit crimes, despoil the environment, and threaten cherished social values. Before automobiles, there was very little interstate crime and very little federal jurisdiction over crime.
Chapter 8 Ethical, Social, and Political Issues in E-commerce Which ethical principle states that, when confronted with an ethical dilemma, individuals should.
Ch. 7: Ethical, Social & Political Issues Flashcards Preview
Ethical Issues In Society Ppt. Ethics should be applied on all stages of research, such as planning, conducting and evaluating a research project. Sports ethics is that branch of the philosophy of sport addressing the specific ethical questions that arise during and around sports competitions.
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Chapter 8 Ethical, Social, and Political Issues in E-commerce.
The increasing development of information technologies IT has significantly affected both firms and markets. IT is currently changing the world in a more permanent and farreaching way than any other technology in the history of mankind. A new economy, where knowledge is the most important strategic resource, is forcing firms to review their traditional routines and take advantage of the tools able to create new value. Meanwhile, the tool that is currently having the most significant effect in the business world is the Internet.
In the case of blogs, one of the most difficult decisions is how much interaction, if any, should be allowed for users. On the one hand, the ability to leave comments, rate articles or photos, and communicate with authors or other visitors encourages readers to return to the site and provides them with a sense of community. On the other hand, uncontrolled content carries a set of dangers and concerns, including copyright and libel issues. There are increasingly serious problems with violence promoted by words, i. Many observers have also noted the increasingly low quality of public discourse on the internet and in some cases, in the blogosphere.
Slide Chapter 8. Ethical, Social, and Political Issues in E-commerce Slide A Model for Organizing the Issues. ▫ Issues raised by Internet and.
Ethical Issues In Society Ppt
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Возможные последствия полученного известия словно пулей пронзили Джаббу. Казалось, тучный шеф отдела обеспечения системной безопасности вот-вот рухнет на пол. - Мертв. Но это значит… значит… что мы не можем… - Это значит, что нужен другой план действий. - Фонтейн, как обычно, говорил спокойно и деловито. Глаза Джаббы по-прежнему выражали шок и растерянность, когда сзади раздался душераздирающий крик: - Джабба. Джабба.
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