Difference between diamagnetic paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials in tabular form pdf

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difference between diamagnetic paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials in tabular form pdf

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Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby some materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field and form internal induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field. Materials or substances that display Paramagnetism are referred to as paramagnetic. Some compounds and most chemical elements are paramagnetic under certain circumstances.

Difference Between Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, and Ferromagnetism

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To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Anirudh Dharmavaram. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. The story of magnetism and magnetic materials begins with minerals called 'Magnetite Fe 3 O 4 ', Hematite Fe 2 O 3 the first magnetic minerals known to man.

Its power of attracting iron was known for centuries before Christ. Magnetic ores were found in Magnesia, the name of a region of the ancient Middle East, in what is now Turkey and the word 'magnet' owes its origin to this fact. Magnetism, The phenomenon by which materials assert an attractive or repulsive force or influence on other materials. However, the underlying principles and mechanisms that explain the magnetic phenomenon are complex and subtle, and their understanding has eluded scientists until relatively recent times.

Magnetism is a force that arises due to the motion of electric charges. All materials without exception are magnetic some are strongly magnetic and some are very weakly magnetic. By, magnetic, it is meant, the ability of a material to respond to an external magnetic field, or in other words, the degree to which a material can be magnetized. All materials can be magnetized, with varying degrees of magnetization. Nowadays, magnetic materials have greatly influenced our daily lives.

Many of our modern technological devices rely on magnetism and magnetic materials; these include electric motors, electrical power generators and transformers. Magnetic materials have found wide use for storing information as magnetic recording tapes, computer disks and credit cards.

In this chapter we will discuss the origin of magnetism in materials in terms of the magnetic dipole moments of the individual atoms. A complete understanding of magnetic properties requires a sound knowledge of quantum mechanics which is beyond this material, but a qualitative understanding can be achieved. The phenomena of diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, anti-ferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism Ferrites and some of the different magnetic materials are discussed.

H describes field outside the material. Magnetic field intensity at any point in a magnetic field is the force experienced by a unit North Pole placed at a given point in a magnetic field. If the magnetic field is generated by means of a cylindrical coil or solenoid consisting of N closely spaced turns, having a length l, and carrying a current of Magnetic induction or Magnetic flux density B :Magnetic induction or magnetic flux density in any material is the number of magnetic lines of force passing normally through unit area.

B represents the magnitude of the internal field strength within a substance that is subjected to an H field. It is the ease with which the material allows magnetic lines of force to pass through it or the degree to which magnetic field can penetrate a given medium is called its permeability.

Mathematically permeability is equal to the ratio of the magnetic induction B inside the material to the applied magnetic intensity H.

The Intensity of magnetization M or I is defined as the magnetic moment per unit volume in a material. It is totally depends on the nature of material. Magnetization of a material is proportional to the magnetic field intensity applied i. It the ease with which a magnetic material can be magnetised by the magnetising force. The magnetic susceptibility of a material is the ratio of intensity of magnetisation M inside the material to the magnetising field H.

The fundamental reason for the response of a material to an external magnetic field is that the atoms possess magnetic moments. That is, atom acts like a tiny magnet. The magnetic properties of solids originate due to the motion of electrons. There are two types of electron motions: orbital and spin motion.

There are three sources that contribute to atomic magnetic moment: a Orbital magnetic moment: Magnetic moment due to the moment of electrons in orbits around the nucleus, i. The contribution due to spin angular moment of the nucleus i.

Orbital Magnetic MomentIn an atom electrons revolve round the nucleus in different orbits these revolving electrons constitute an electric current in the orbits this is equivalent to current in a closed circuit fig. Suppose an electron is revolving around a nucleus. Let the charge on the electron be 'e' and the radius of its orbit be 'r'. The revolving electron is like a loop of current. The direction of current in this loop is opposite to the direction of the revolution of the electron.

Thus, if the electron revolves in the clockwise direction, it constitutes an anticlockwise current, and vice versa. The orbital magnetic moment is given by the equation Minutes Properties of different classes of magnetic materials:Now we are going to study the various properties of magnetic materials in terms of the magnetic properties of the atomic dipoles and the interaction between them. The first distinction is based on whether the atoms carry permanent magnetic dipoles or not. Materials Thus diamagnetism is the phenomenon by which the induced magnetic moment is always in the opposite direction of the applied field.

Thus, the relative permeability is less than unity however, only very slightly , and the magnetic susceptibility is negative; that is, the magnitude of the B field within a diamagnetic solid is less than that in a vacuum. The volume susceptibility for diamagnetic solid materials is on the order of When placed between the poles of a strong electromagnet, diamagnetic materials are attracted toward regions where the field is weak.

Though diamagnetism is present in all materials but it is masked by other types of magnetism because it is very weak. It can be observed only when other types of magnetism are absent.

Properties of Diamagnetic Materials1. An atom of this material does not contain permanent dipoles. An atom of this material has no magnetic dipole moment.

The effect is weak and often masked by other kinds of magnetism. A Dia-magnet is weakly repelled by a normal magnet. Relative permeability is less than 1 but only slightly less than unity. Magnetic susceptibility is negative but only slightly less than unity. Magnetic susceptibility is independent of temperature. Magnetic susceptibility is independent of applied magnetic field strength.

Atomic orbitals are completely filled no electron is un-paired. In the absence of external magnetic field the dipoles are randomly oriented resulting in zero net magnetic moment. When external magnetic field is applied, some of the permanent dipoles try to align in the direction of the magnetic field fig.

Since few dipoles try to align in the direction of the magnetic field the net magnetic moment produced in the material is small so the material is feebly magnetised. When placed inside the magnetic field the material allows magnetic lines of force to pass through it as shown in fig. There is no interaction between the adjacent dipoles they are acted upon individually.

The relative permeability is greater than unity. Magnetic susceptibility is positive but relatively small value. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic values range from 10 -5 to 10 2. These materials are used in lasers and masers. Where one can create the required energy levels of transition. Paramagnetic property of oxygen is used in the NMR imaging instrument which is used to diagnose the brain tumor or blood clot in the brain.

Properties of paramagnetic materials1. They attract magnetic lines of force when placed in magnetic field. In the absence of external magnetic field the dipoles are randomly oriented. An atom of this material possesses a non-zero magnetic dipole moment. Possess permanent dipole moment. Relative permeability is slightly greater than unity.

Magnetic susceptibility is positive and small. Magnetic susceptibility is independent of applied magnetic field strength but depend on temperature. With increase in temperature the susceptibility of the material decreases. The susceptibility of a ferromagnetic material is temperature dependent. A ferromagnetic material exhibits two different properties. Below a particular temperature called Curie temperature it behaves as a ferromagnetic and above that Curie temperature it behaves as a paramagnetic material fig.

The relative permeability is very large. Magnetic susceptibility is as high as 10 6. Curie Temperature:Even though electronic exchange forces in ferromagnets are very large, thermal energy eventually overcomes the exchange and produces a randomizing effect. This occurs at a particular temperature called the Curie temperature T C. Below the Curie temperature, the ferromagnet is ordered and above it, disordered. The saturation magnetization goes to zero at the Curie temperature. A typical plot of magnetization versus temperature for magnetite is shown fig.

Antiferromagnetism depends on temperature. The adjacent dipoles are aligned in antiparallel direction. These are also ceramic and ionic in nature. They exhibit permanent magnetization.


Based on the magnetic properties, materials can be divided into five main categories; diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic. The key difference between diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials is that diamagnetic materials are not attracted to an external magnetic field , and paramagnetic materials are attracted to an external magnetic field whereas ferromagnetic materials are strongly attracted to an external magnetic field. Overview and Key Difference 2. What are Diamagnetic Materials 3. What are Paramagnetic Materials 4.

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12 Difference Between Paramagnetism Diamagnetism And Ferromagnetism

Favorite Answer. Attractive materials might be named diamagnetic, paramagnetic, or ferromagnetic based on their susceptibilities. For,Diamagnetic material: Susceptibiltiy is small and negative. Paramagnetic material: Susceptibility is small and positive.

The major difference between the two is that the net magnetic moment of the former is non-zero while in the latter it is zero. As nouns the difference between ferrimagnetism and ferromagnetism is that ferrimagnetism is physics a form of antiferromagnetism in which some magnetization remains below a critical temperature the neel temperature while ferromagnetism is physics the phenomenon whereby certain substances can become permanent magnets when … Rev. Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism.

Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism refer to how different materials respond to magnetic fields. Orbital angular momentum is a property that electrons have when they are in atoms. The magnetic moment is a property that causes electrons to experience a force when they are placed in a magnetic field. The magnetic moment due to spin angular momentum is given by:. All materials are diamagnetic.

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Electrical Academia. In order to classify materials as magnetic or non-magnetic, it must be determined whether or not forces act on the material when a material is placed in a magnetic field. If a bar of any given material is suspended in a magnetic field, it will either turn at a right angle to the field or align with the field. A material aligning itself with the applied field is called paramagnetic material. The effects of diamagnetic and paramagnetic are negligibly small so that materials possessing these weak phenomena are said to be non-magnetic. Within the paramagnetic class of materials, is a special classification of materials called ferromagnetic material. These materials are strongly attracted to magnets and exhibit Paramagnetism to a phenomenal degree.

Classification of magnetic materials. On the basis of the behaviour of materials in a magnetising field, the materials are generally classified into three categories namely,. Diamagnetic substances are those in which the net magnetic moment of atoms is zero. The susceptibility has a low negative value. Susceptibility is independent of temperature. The relative permeability is slightly less than one.

This informative table clarifies the differences between magnetic materials. Properties Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic Definition It is a material in which there is no permanent magnetic moment. It has permanent magnetic moment. It has enormous permanent magnetic moment. Examples Copper, silver, and gold Magnesium, molybdenum, lithium, and tantalum Iron, nickel, and cobalt State Solid, liquid, or gas Solid, liquid, or gas Solid Effect of magnet slightly repelled Slightly attracted Strongly attracted Behavior of non-uniform field Movement from high to low field region Movement from low to high field region Movement from low to high field region Does it retain the magnetic properties when the external field is removed? No No Yes Effects of temperature No effect With the rise of temperature, a parmagnetic substance becomes diamagnetic. Above curie point, a ferromagnetic substance becomes ferromagnetic.

6.8: Ferro-, Ferri- and Antiferromagnetism

difference between paramagnetic diamagnetic and ferromagnetic class 12

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