Robotics and industrial automation pdf

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robotics and industrial automation pdf

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[PDF] Robotics and Automation Handbook By Thomas R. Kurfess Book Free Download

One of the most important application areas for automation technology is manufacturing. To many people, automation means manufacturing automation. In this section, the types of automation are defined, and examples of automated systems used in manufacturing are described.

Three types of automation in production can be distinguished: 1 fixed automation, 2 programmable automation, and 3 flexible automation. In effect, the programmed commands are contained in the machines in the form of cams, gears, wiring, and other hardware that is not easily changed over from one product style to another.

This form of automation is characterized by high initial investment and high production rates. It is therefore suitable for products that are made in large volumes. Examples of fixed automation include machining transfer lines found in the automotive industry , automatic assembly machines, and certain chemical processes. Programmable automation is a form of automation for producing products in batches. The products are made in batch quantities ranging from several dozen to several thousand units at a time.

For each new batch, the production equipment must be reprogrammed and changed over to accommodate the new product style. This reprogramming and changeover take time to accomplish, and there is a period of nonproductive time followed by a production run for each new batch. Production rates in programmable automation are generally lower than in fixed automation, because the equipment is designed to facilitate product changeover rather than for product specialization. A numerical-control machine tool is a good example of programmable automation.

The program is coded in computer memory for each different product style, and the machine tool is controlled by the computer program. Industrial robots are another example. Flexible automation is an extension of programmable automation. The disadvantage with programmable automation is the time required to reprogram and change over the production equipment for each batch of new product. This is lost production time, which is expensive. In flexible automation, the variety of products is sufficiently limited so that the changeover of the equipment can be done very quickly and automatically.

The reprogramming of the equipment in flexible automation is done off-line; that is, the programming is accomplished at a computer terminal without using the production equipment itself.

Accordingly, there is no need to group identical products into batches; instead, a mixture of different products can be produced one right after another. An automated production line consists of a series of workstations connected by a transfer system to move parts between the stations. This is an example of fixed automation, since these lines are typically set up for long production runs, perhaps making millions of product units and running for several years between changeovers. Each station is designed to perform a specific processing operation, so that the part or product is constructed stepwise as it progresses along the line.

A raw work part enters at one end of the line, proceeds through each workstation, and emerges at the other end as a completed product. In the normal operation of the line, there is a work part being processed at each station, so that many parts are being processed simultaneously and a finished part is produced with each cycle of the line. The various operations, part transfers, and other activities taking place on an automated transfer line must all be sequenced and coordinated properly for the line to operate efficiently.

Modern automated lines are controlled by programmable logic controllers, which are special computers that facilitate connections with industrial equipment such as automated production lines and can perform the kinds of timing and sequencing functions required to operate such equipment. Automated production lines are utilized in many industries, most notably automotive , where they are used for processes such as machining and pressworking.

Machining is a manufacturing process in which metal is removed by a cutting or shaping tool, so that the remaining work part is the desired shape. Machinery and motor components are usually made by this process. In many cases, multiple operations are required to completely shape the part. If the part is mass-produced, an automated transfer line is often the most economical method of production. The many separate operations are divided among the workstations.

Transfer lines date back to about Pressworking operations involve the cutting and forming of parts from sheet metal. Examples of such parts include automobile body panels, outer shells of major appliances e. More than one processing step is often required to complete a complicated part. Several presses are connected together in sequence by handling mechanisms that transfer the partially completed parts from one press to the next, thus creating an automated pressworking line.

Automation Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Load Previous Page. Manufacturing applications of automation and robotics. Learn how the discipline of mechatronics combines knowledge and skills from mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering to create high-tech products such as industrial robots.

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Industrial Robotics

At Productivity, we know that change can often be overwhelming and frightening. Our experts are here to prove that there are a multitude of benefits when you upgrade to automation. Click here to download PDF. Robots can perform the work of three to five people, depending on the task. In addition to savings on the cost of labor, energy savings can also be significant due to lower heating requirements in automated operations. Robots streamline processes and increase part accuracy, which means minimal material waste for your operation.

Industrial robot Autonomous research robot Domestic robot. Home automation Banking automation Laboratory automation Integrated library system Broadcast automation Console automation Building automation. Automated attendant Automated guided vehicle Automated highway system Automated pool cleaner Automated reasoning Automated teller machine Automatic painting robotic Pop music automation Robotic lawn mower Telephone switchboard Vending machine. Automation describes a wide range of technologies that reduce human intervention in processes. Human intervention is reduced by predetermining decision criteria, subprocess relationships, and related actions — and embodying those predeterminations in machines. Automation, [2] or automatic control , includes the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery , processes in factories , boilers , and heat-treating ovens , switching on telephone networks , steering , and stabilization of ships , aircraft , and other applications and vehicles with reduced human intervention. Automation covers applications ranging from a household thermostat controlling a boiler, to a large industrial control system with tens of thousands of input measurements and output control signals.

Benefits of Automation

Save extra with 2 Offers. Industrial Automation and Robotics By A. Gupta, S. Arora Book Summary: Many changes have been incorporated to make it more user-oriented.

Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Industrial robotics in factory automation: From the early stage to the Internet of Things Abstract: Robotics is a surprisingly old discipline, and robots have shaped industry and the various industrial revolutions for many decades.