Forward engineering and reverse engineering in uml pdf
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- Forward engineering and UML: from UML static models to Eiffel code
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Forward engineering and UML: from UML static models to Eiffel code
Reverse engineering also known as backwards engineering or back engineering is a process or method through the application of which one attempts to understand through deductive reasoning how a device, process, system, or piece of software accomplishes a task with very little if any insight into exactly how it does so.
Reverse engineering is applicable in the fields of computer engineering , mechanical engineering , electronic engineering , software engineering , chemical engineering ,  and systems biology. There are many reasons for performing reverse engineering in various fields. Reverse engineering has its origins in the analysis of hardware for commercial or military advantage. It is only an analysis to deduce design features from products with little or no additional knowledge about the procedures involved in their original production.
In some cases, the goal of the reverse engineering process can simply be a redocumentation of legacy systems. Software reverse engineering can help to improve the understanding of the underlying source code for the maintenance and improvement of the software, relevant information can be extracted to make a decision for software development and graphical representations of the code can provide alternate views regarding the source code, which can help to detect and fix a software bug or vulnerability.
Frequently, as some software develops, its design information and improvements are often lost over time, but that lost information can usually be recovered with reverse engineering.
The process can also help to cut down the time required to understand the source code, thus reducing the overall cost of the software development. Reversing a source code can be used to find alternate uses of the source code, such as detecting the unauthorized replication of the source code where it was not intended to be used, or revealing how a competitor's product was built. Malware developers often use reverse engineering techniques to find vulnerabilities in an operating system to build a computer virus that can exploit the system vulnerabilities.
The physical object can be measured using 3D scanning technologies like CMMs , laser scanners , structured light digitizers , or industrial CT scanning computed tomography. The measured data alone, usually represented as a point cloud , lacks topological information and design intent. The former may be recovered by converting the point cloud to a triangular-faced mesh. Reverse engineering aims to go beyond producing such a mesh and to recover the design intent in terms of simple analytical surfaces where appropriate planes, cylinders, etc.
Recovery of such a model allows a design to be modified to meet new requirements, a manufacturing plan to be generated, etc.
Using a combination of geometric and freeform surfaces can provide a powerful method of 3D modeling. Areas of freeform data can be combined with exact geometric surfaces to create a hybrid model. A typical example of this would be the reverse engineering of a cylinder head, which includes freeform cast features, such as water jackets and high-tolerance machined areas. Reverse engineering is also used by businesses to bring existing physical geometry into digital product development environments, to make a digital 3D record of their own products, or to assess competitors' products.
It is used to analyze how a product works, what it does, what components it has; estimate costs; identify potential patent infringement; etc. Value engineering , a related activity that is also used by businesses, involves deconstructing and analyzing products. However, the objective is to find opportunities for cost-cutting.
In , the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE defined software reverse engineering SRE as "the process of analyzing a subject system to identify the system's components and their interrelationships and to create representations of the system in another form or at a higher level of abstraction" in which the "subject system" is the end product of software development.
Reverse engineering is a process of examination only, and the software system under consideration is not modified, which would otherwise be re-engineering or restructuring. Reverse engineering can be performed from any stage of the product cycle, not necessarily from the functional end product.
There are two components in reverse engineering: redocumentation and design recovery. Redocumentation is the creation of new representation of the computer code so that it is easier to understand. Meanwhile, design recovery is the use of deduction or reasoning from general knowledge or personal experience of the product to understand the product's functionality fully.
Another term for this technique is program comprehension. Software anti-tamper technology like obfuscation is used to deter both reverse engineering and re-engineering of proprietary software and software-powered systems. In practice, two main types of reverse engineering emerge. In the first case, source code is already available for the software, but higher-level aspects of the program, which are perhaps poorly documented or documented but no longer valid, are discovered. In the second case, there is no source code available for the software, and any efforts towards discovering one possible source code for the software are regarded as reverse engineering.
The second usage of the term is more familiar to most people. Reverse engineering of software can make use of the clean room design technique to avoid copyright infringement. On a related note, black box testing in software engineering has a lot in common with reverse engineering. The tester usually has the API but has the goals to find bugs and undocumented features by bashing the product from outside.
Other purposes of reverse engineering include security auditing, removal of copy protection " cracking " , circumvention of access restrictions often present in consumer electronics , customization of embedded systems such as engine management systems , in-house repairs or retrofits, enabling of additional features on low-cost "crippled" hardware such as some graphics card chip-sets , or even mere satisfaction of curiosity. Binary reverse engineering is performed if source code for a software is unavailable.
Reverse engineering of software is protected in the US by the fair use exception in copyright law. The ReactOS project is even more ambitious in its goals by striving to provide binary ABI and API compatibility with the current Windows operating systems of the NT branch, which allows software and drivers written for Windows to run on a clean-room reverse-engineered free software GPL counterpart.
WindowsSCOPE allows for reverse-engineering the full contents of a Windows system's live memory including a binary-level, graphical reverse engineering of all running processes. Reverse engineering of software can be accomplished by various methods. The three main groups of software reverse engineering are. Software classification is the process of identifying similarities between different software binaries such as two different versions of the same binary used to detect code relations between software samples.
The task was traditionally done manually for several reasons such as patch analysis for vulnerability detection and copyright infringement , but it can now be done somewhat automatically for large numbers of samples. This method is being used mostly for long and thorough reverse engineering tasks complete analysis of a complex algorithm or big piece of software. A number of UML tools refer to the process of importing and analysing source code to generate UML diagrams as "reverse engineering.
Although UML is one approach to providing "reverse engineering" more recent advances in international standards activities have resulted in the development of the Knowledge Discovery Metamodel KDM. The standard delivers an ontology for the intermediate or abstracted representation of programming language constructs and their interrelationships. An Object Management Group standard on its way to becoming an ISO standard as well , KDM has started to take hold in industry with the development of tools and analysis environments that can deliver the extraction and analysis of source, binary, and byte code.
For source code analysis, KDM's granular standards' architecture enables the extraction of software system flows data, control, and call maps , architectures, and business layer knowledge rules, terms, and process.
The standard enables the use of a common data format XMI enabling the correlation of the various layers of system knowledge for either detailed analysis such as root cause, impact or derived analysis such as business process extraction. Although efforts to represent language constructs can be never-ending because of the number of languages, the continuous evolution of software languages, and the development of new languages, the standard does allow for the use of extensions to support the broad language set as well as evolution.
KDM is compatible with UML, BPMN, RDF, and other standards enabling migration into other environments and thus leverage system knowledge for efforts such as software system transformation and enterprise business layer analysis. Protocols are sets of rules that describe message formats and how messages are exchanged: the protocol state machine. Accordingly, the problem of protocol reverse-engineering can be partitioned into two subproblems: message format and state-machine reverse-engineering.
The message formats have traditionally been reverse-engineered by a tedious manual process, which involved analysis of how protocol implementations process messages, but recent research proposed a number of automatic solutions.
There has been less work on reverse-engineering of state-machines of protocols. In general, the protocol state-machines can be learned either through a process of offline learning , which passively observes communication and attempts to build the most general state-machine accepting all observed sequences of messages, and online learning , which allows interactive generation of probing sequences of messages and listening to responses to those probing sequences.
In general, offline learning of small state-machines is known to be NP-complete ,  but online learning can be done in polynomial time. Other components of typical protocols, like encryption and hash functions, can be reverse-engineered automatically as well.
Typically, the automatic approaches trace the execution of protocol implementations and try to detect buffers in memory holding unencrypted packets. Reverse engineering is an invasive and destructive form of analyzing a smart card. The attacker uses chemicals to etch away layer after layer of the smart card and takes pictures with a scanning electron microscope SEM.
That technique can reveal the complete hardware and software part of the smart card. The major problem for the attacker is to bring everything into the right order to find out how everything works. The makers of the card try to hide keys and operations by mixing up memory positions, such as by bus scrambling. In some cases, it is even possible to attach a probe to measure voltages while the smart card is still operational. The makers of the card employ sensors to detect and prevent that attack.
Furthermore, the payoff from this attack is low since other security techniques are often used such as shadow accounts. It is still uncertain whether attacks against chip-and-PIN cards to replicate encryption data and then to crack PINs would provide a cost-effective attack on multifactor authentication. The first step after images have been taken with a SEM is stitching the images together, which is necessary because each layer cannot be captured by a single shot.
A SEM needs to sweep across the area of the circuit and take several hundred images to cover the entire layer. Image stitching takes as input several hundred pictures and outputs a single properly-overlapped picture of the complete layer. Next, the stitched layers need to be aligned because the sample, after etching, cannot be put into the exact same position relative to the SEM each time. Therefore, the stitched versions will not overlap in the correct fashion, as on the real circuit. Usually, three corresponding points are selected, and a transformation applied on the basis of that.
To extract the circuit structure, the aligned, stitched images need to be segmented, which highlights the important circuitry and separates it from the uninteresting background and insulating materials. Finally, the wires can be traced from one layer to the next, and the netlist of the circuit, which contains all of the circuit's information, can be reconstructed.
Reverse engineering is often used by people to copy other nations' technologies, devices, or information that have been obtained by regular troops in the fields or by intelligence operations. Here are well-known examples from the Second World War and later:. Reverse engineering concepts have been applied to biology as well, specifically to the task of understanding the structure and function of gene regulatory networks. They regulate almost every aspect of biological behavior and allow cells to carry out physiological processes and responses to perturbations.
Understanding the structure and the dynamic behavior of gene networks is therefore one of the paramount challenges of systems biology, with immediate practical repercussions in several applications that are beyond basic research. They have been generally divided into six classes: . Often, gene network reliability is tested by genetic perturbation experiments followed by dynamic modelling, based on the principle that removing one network node has predictable effects on the functioning of the remaining nodes of the network.
Reverse engineering applies primarily to gaining understanding of a process or artifact in which the manner of its construction, use, or internal processes has not been made clear by its creator. Patented items do not of themselves have to be reverse-engineered to be studied, for the essence of a patent is that inventors provide a detailed public disclosure themselves, and in return receive legal protection of the invention that is involved. However, an item produced under one or more patents could also include other technology that is not patented and not disclosed.
Indeed, one common motivation of reverse engineering is to determine whether a competitor's product contains patent infringement or copyright infringement. In the United States, even if an artifact or process is protected by trade secrets , reverse-engineering the artifact or process is often lawful if it has been legitimately obtained.
Reverse engineering of computer software often falls under both contract law as a breach of contract as well as any other relevant laws.
That is because most end user license agreements specifically prohibit it, and US courts have ruled that if such terms are present, they override the copyright law that expressly permits it see Bowers v. Baystate Technologies  .
A limited exemption exists that allows the knowledge thus gained to be shared and used for interoperability purposes. The unauthorised reproduction, translation, adaptation or transformation of the form of the code in which a copy of a computer program has been made available constitutes an infringement of the exclusive rights of the author.
Nevertheless, circumstances may exist when such a reproduction of the code and translation of its form are indispensable to obtain the necessary information to achieve the interoperability of an independently created program with other programs.
Join Stack Overflow to learn, share knowledge, and build your career. Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. I need to maintain some project in Java, but it is very big. Is there something what can help me? This is a commercial application with lots of stuff, but for what you need to do, you are fine with the evaluation key. How to generate UML diagrams especially sequence diagrams from Java code.
Want to edit, but don't see an edit button when logged in? Click here. Tools to help with designing a schema, via creating Entity-Relationship diagrams and similar. Most are GUI. List also includes tools to help with "visualization" or "documentation" of already existing databases. This is open source GPLv3 and can be freely built yourself, if you have Qt available, but downloadable binaries appear to be time-limited demos that can be unlocked with paypal.
Forward engineering is the process of transforming a model into code through a mapping models written in the UML are semantically richer than any current object-oriented Reverse engineering results in a flood of information, some of.
Forward engineering and Reverse engineering are part of the re-engineering process and closely related. The crucial difference between the forward engineering and reverse engineering is that forward engineering employs the change in the subject system during restructuring. Conversely, reverse engineering whole sole purpose is to examine the system to obtain its more abstract design. Software re-engineering is nothing but the re-implementation of the legacy system to achieve more sustainability.
Forward engineering the process of starting at the gathering of requirements. Reverse engineering attempting to reconstruct the logical data model from a physical data model. Before reverse engineering, you must open the uml project from the java project. Modeling the distribution and of objects is discussed in. Uml support is limited to class diagrams and the codegeneration capabilities are simple class to class or interface to interface transformations.
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It also permits forward engineering FE and reverse engineering RE. FE and RE [Som04] are engineering processes. The objective of FE is to produce an implementation starting with a specification or a design. The objective of RE is to recover a design or a specification from an implementation.
The most commonly used standard today is the Unified Modeling Language. There are many tools that implemented support for this standard for modeling, and they vary in functionality. A comparative study, including a selection of these tools, will show advantages and disadvantages for each tool. The purpose of this study is to test a selection of these modeling tools for a typical three-tier layered web service application. The tools tested in this study are Microsoft Visual Studio
En annan typ av UML-diagram som källkod kan genereras från är Nyckelord: UML, Forward Engineering, reverse engineering into interaction diagrams is to create the gmworldwide.orgpdf.
Forward Engineering: Forward Engineering is a method of creating or making an application with the help of the given requirements. Forward engineering is also known as Renovation and Reclamation. Forward engineering is required high proficiency skill. It takes more time to construct or develop an application. Reverse Engineering: Reverse Engineering is also known as backward engineering, is the process of forward engineering in reverse. In this, the information are collected from the given or exist application.
Reverse engineering also known as backwards engineering or back engineering is a process or method through the application of which one attempts to understand through deductive reasoning how a device, process, system, or piece of software accomplishes a task with very little if any insight into exactly how it does so. Reverse engineering is applicable in the fields of computer engineering , mechanical engineering , electronic engineering , software engineering , chemical engineering ,  and systems biology. There are many reasons for performing reverse engineering in various fields. Reverse engineering has its origins in the analysis of hardware for commercial or military advantage. It is only an analysis to deduce design features from products with little or no additional knowledge about the procedures involved in their original production. In some cases, the goal of the reverse engineering process can simply be a redocumentation of legacy systems.
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