Causes and effects of land pollution pdf
File Name: causes and effects of land pollution .zip
Find out its causes and effects, but most importantly the solutions to control and prevent land pollution, and how you can contribute to reduce it.
When many of us think of pollution, images of smoggy cities and litter-infested oceans come to mind. While littering and gasoline-fueled cars are a major contributor to pollution, there are many other influences that are important to be aware of. Essentially, pollution occurs when substances are introduced to the environment that have harmful effects, damaging the quality of land, water, and air. The cause is the accumulation of solid and liquid waste materials that contaminate groundwater and soil.
Jump to navigation. British poet W. This widespread problem of water pollution is jeopardizing our health. Unsafe water kills more people each year than war and all other forms of violence combined. Without action, the challenges will only increase by , when global demand for freshwater is expected to be one-third greater than it is now.
Sip a glass of cool, clear water as you read this, and you may think water pollution is a problem. But while most Americans have access to safe drinking water , potentially harmful contaminants—from arsenic to copper to lead—have been found in the tap water of every single state in the nation.
Water pollution occurs when harmful substances—often chemicals or microorganisms—contaminate a stream, river, lake, ocean, aquifer, or other body of water, degrading water quality and rendering it toxic to humans or the environment.
Water is uniquely vulnerable to pollution. Toxic substances from farms, towns, and factories readily dissolve into and mix with it, causing water pollution. When rain falls and seeps deep into the earth, filling the cracks, crevices, and porous spaces of an aquifer basically an underground storehouse of water , it becomes groundwater—one of our least visible but most important natural resources.
Groundwater gets polluted when contaminants—from pesticides and fertilizers to waste leached from landfills and septic systems—make their way into an aquifer, rendering it unsafe for human use. Ridding groundwater of contaminants can be difficult to impossible, as well as costly. Once polluted, an aquifer may be unusable for decades, or even thousands of years. Groundwater can also spread contamination far from the original polluting source as it seeps into streams, lakes, and oceans. Covering about 70 percent of the earth , surface water is what fills our oceans, lakes, rivers, and all those other blue bits on the world map.
Surface water from freshwater sources that is, from sources other than the ocean accounts for more than 60 percent of the water delivered to American homes. But a significant pool of that water is in peril. According to the most recent surveys on national water quality from the U. Environmental Protection Agency, nearly half of our rivers and streams and more than one-third of our lakes are polluted and unfit for swimming, fishing, and drinking. Nutrient pollution , which includes nitrates and phosphates, is the leading type of contamination in these freshwater sources.
While plants and animals need these nutrients to grow, they have become a major pollutant due to farm waste and fertilizer runoff. Municipal and industrial waste discharges contribute their fair share of toxins as well.
Eighty percent of ocean pollution also called marine pollution originates on land—whether along the coast or far inland. Contaminants such as chemicals, nutrients, and heavy metals are carried from farms, factories, and cities by streams and rivers into our bays and estuaries; from there they travel out to sea.
Meanwhile, marine debris— particularly plastic —is blown in by the wind or washed in via storm drains and sewers. Our seas are also sometimes spoiled by oil spills and leaks— big and small —and are consistently soaking up carbon pollution from the air. The ocean absorbs as much as a quarter of man-made carbon emissions.
Examples include wastewater also called effluent discharged legally or illegally by a manufacturer, oil refinery, or wastewater treatment facility, as well as contamination from leaking septic systems, chemical and oil spills, and illegal dumping.
The EPA regulates point source pollution by establishing limits on what can be discharged by a facility directly into a body of water. While point source pollution originates from a specific place, it can affect miles of waterways and ocean.
Nonpoint source pollution is contamination derived from diffuse sources. These may include agricultural or stormwater runoff or debris blown into waterways from land. Nonpoint source pollution is the leading cause of water pollution in U. Transboundary pollution is the result of contaminated water from one country spilling into the waters of another. Contamination can result from a disaster—like an oil spill—or the slow, downriver creep of industrial, agricultural, or municipal discharge.
Around the world, agriculture is the leading cause of water degradation. Every time it rains, fertilizers, pesticides, and animal waste from farms and livestock operations wash nutrients and pathogens—such bacteria and viruses—into our waterways. Nutrient pollution , caused by excess nitrogen and phosphorus in water or air, is the number-one threat to water quality worldwide and can cause algal blooms , a toxic soup of blue-green algae that can be harmful to people and wildlife.
Used water is wastewater. It comes from our sinks, showers, and toilets think sewage and from commercial, industrial, and agricultural activities think metals, solvents, and toxic sludge. The term also includes stormwater runoff , which occurs when rainfall carries road salts, oil, grease, chemicals, and debris from impermeable surfaces into our waterways.
In the United States, wastewater treatment facilities process about 34 billion gallons of wastewater per day. These facilities reduce the amount of pollutants such as pathogens, phosphorus, and nitrogen in sewage, as well as heavy metals and toxic chemicals in industrial waste, before discharging the treated waters back into waterways.
Big spills may dominate headlines, but consumers account for the vast majority of oil pollution in our seas, including oil and gasoline that drips from millions of cars and trucks every day. Moreover, nearly half of the estimated 1 million tons of oil that makes its way into marine environments each year comes not from tanker spills but from land-based sources such as factories, farms, and cities.
At sea, tanker spills account for about 10 percent of the oil in waters around the world, while regular operations of the shipping industry—through both legal and illegal discharges—contribute about one-third. Oil is also naturally released from under the ocean floor through fractures known as seeps. Radioactive waste is any pollution that emits radiation beyond what is naturally released by the environment. Radioactive waste can persist in the environment for thousands of years, making disposal a major challenge.
Accidentally released or improperly disposed of contaminants threaten groundwater, surface water, and marine resources. To put it bluntly: Water pollution kills.
In fact, it caused 1. Contaminated water can also make you ill. Every year, unsafe water sickens about 1 billion people. And low-income communities are disproportionately at risk because their homes are often closest to the most polluting industries. Waterborne pathogens, in the form of disease-causing bacteria and viruses from human and animal waste, are a major cause of illness from contaminated drinking water. Diseases spread by unsafe water include cholera, giardia, and typhoid.
Even in wealthy nations, accidental or illegal releases from sewage treatment facilities, as well as runoff from farms and urban areas, contribute harmful pathogens to waterways.
Meanwhile, the plight of residents in Flint, Michigan —where cost-cutting measures and aging water infrastructure created the recent lead contamination crisis—offers a stark look at how dangerous chemical and other industrial pollutants in our water can be. The problem goes far beyond Flint and involves much more than lead, as a wide range of chemical pollutants—from heavy metals such as arsenic and mercury to pesticides and nitrate fertilizers —are getting into our water supplies.
Children and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Even swimming can pose a risk. Every year, 3. In order to thrive, healthy ecosystems rely on a complex web of animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi—all of which interact, directly or indirectly, with each other. Harm to any of these organisms can create a chain effect, imperiling entire aquatic environments. When water pollution causes an algal bloom in a lake or marine environment, the proliferation of newly introduced nutrients stimulates plant and algae growth, which in turn reduces oxygen levels in the water.
In certain cases, these harmful algal blooms can also produce neurotoxins that affect wildlife, from whales to sea turtles. Chemicals and heavy metals from industrial and municipal wastewater contaminate waterways as well.
Marine ecosystems are also threatened by marine debris , which can strangle, suffocate, and starve animals. Much of this solid debris, such as plastic bags and soda cans, gets swept into sewers and storm drains and eventually out to sea, turning our oceans into trash soup and sometimes consolidating to form floating garbage patches.
Discarded fishing gear and other types of debris are responsible for harming more than different species of marine life. Meanwhile, ocean acidification is making it tougher for shellfish and coral to survive. Though they absorb about a quarter of the carbon pollution created each year by burning fossil fuels, oceans are becoming more acidic.
This process makes it harder for shellfish and other species to build shells and may impact the nervous systems of sharks, clownfish, and other marine life. Fortunately, there are some simple ways you can prevent water contamination or at least limit your contribution to it:. Tell the federal government, the U. Also, learn how you and those around you can get involved in the policymaking process.
Our public waterways serve every American. The humble bivalves, which concentrate everything from heavy metals to cancer drugs in their tissues, provide an ideal way for scientists to monitor nearshore water health.
Litter, sewage, plastic, and other pollutants do more than just ruin the beauty of the beach. They are closing down coastal areas, destroying marine life, and making people seriously sick. The PFAS-laden firefighting foam used in training exercises at military bases easily slips into groundwater supplies, tainting everything around it.
As droughts parch the Southeast, interstate squabbles heat up over the Tennessee River and the Chattahoochee.
Ugly, foul-smelling and sometimes toxic, algal blooms are becoming more common in freshwater ecosystems like rivers, lakes, ponds, and reservoirs. In a move that could open the door to industrial waste and interstate squabbles, the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission is making its water quality standards voluntary. President Trump revokes the Clean Water Rule and doubles down on his fake weather forecast, while the Bureau of Land Management hitches up its wagons to move west.
From fertilizer runoff to methane emissions, large-scale industrial agriculture pollution takes a toll on the environment. The administration relocates science jobs, refuses to fill others, and tosses a lifeline to polluters while silencing citizens. A growing number of communities—both coastal and inland—are finding themselves underwater. Extreme weather, sea level rise, and other climate change impacts are increasingly to blame. More than craft breweries from across the country, including Brooklyn Brewery and New Belgium Brewing Company, are joining NRDC to explain why clean water is essential for great-tasting beer.
By relying on plants, soil, and natural systems to manage rainfall runoff, green infrastructure tackles urban water woes and boosts climate resilience. After an illegal dumping of close to 2, tons of dangerous sludge and contaminated materials across the street from two schools, a Kentucky community struggles with what to do next.
Ten years after the disaster at a Tennessee power plant, the cleanup crew is seeking justice. At the same time, the Trump administration is weakening protections for this toxic pollution. As the Trump administration ratchets up its rhetoric demanding billions for a wall, American communities along the Mexico border are in need of basic services, like reliable sewage treatment. The problem of how to dispose of nuclear waste has haunted the United States for six decades.
Residents of cities like Pittsburgh and Newark continue to face high levels of this toxic metal in their drinking water supplies.
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Land pollution , the deposition of solid or liquid waste materials on land or underground in a manner that can contaminate the soil and groundwater , threaten public health , and cause unsightly conditions and nuisances. MSW includes nonhazardous garbage, rubbish, and trash from homes, institutions e. Garbage contains moist and decomposable biodegradable food wastes e. Hazardous wastes include harmful and dangerous substances generated primarily as liquids but also as solids, sludges, or gases by various chemical manufacturing companies, petroleum refineries , paper mills, smelters, machine shops, dry cleaners , automobile repair shops, and many other industries or commercial facilities. The permeability of soil formations underlying a waste-disposal site is of great importance with regard to land pollution.
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotics human-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals or improper disposal of waste. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons , polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene and benzo a pyrene , solvents , pesticides, lead , and other heavy metals. Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical substance. The concern over soil contamination stems primarily from health risks, from direct contact with the contaminated soil, vapours from the contaminants, or from secondary contamination of water supplies within and underlying the soil. In North America and Western Europe the extent of contaminated land is best known, with many of countries in these areas having a legal framework to identify and deal with this environmental problem. Developing countries tend to be less tightly regulated despite some of them having undergone significant industrialization.
This is because we can see the effects caused by the pollutants and their extent very clearly. It is normal human psychology to believe in what you see firsthand. Our land, on the other hand, is living a nightmare too. Land Pollution has emerged to become one of the serious concerns that we collectively battle.
Jump to navigation. British poet W. This widespread problem of water pollution is jeopardizing our health. Unsafe water kills more people each year than war and all other forms of violence combined.
They face a serious threat with regard to the loss of habitat and natural environment. The water in that situation becomes unable to support most life forms. Apart from the environmental effects of pollution, there are also severe economic effects. The leftover radioactive material contains harmful and toxic chemicals that can affect human health. Land that is once converted into dry or barren land can never be made fertile again, whatever the magnitude of measures to redeem it is.
Read this article to learn about the sources, effects and control of land pollution! It occurs:.