Encoding and decoding in communication pdf

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encoding and decoding in communication pdf

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It analyzes the underlying assumptions of the model, accounts for the criticisms made against it, and points out ways in which the theory of articulation is an advance over the earlier model. One of the consequences is the problematic equivalence between the preferred meaning of the text and dominant ideology. Limitations such as these can be overcome through the present reading.

Communication Process

Figure 1. Two different codes. When writing this article an important first decision was to determine which code I would use.

That is to say, which particular world language would be used to encode my intended meanings? If, for example, I had chosen the code known as Greek or the code known as Dutch, and you do no understand how to decode these particular languages then my communication attempts would be in vain.

In this instance, I have chosen the code known as English and, in particular, British English. Did you understand the first paragraph in Figure 1? Were you able to decode its meaning? What about the second paragraph in Figure 1? Well, unless you understand written Greek first paragraph or Dutch second paragraph you would not have been able to decode the particular language and glean its meaning. In fact, the first two paragraphs have essentially the same meaning as the opening paragraph of this article above, written of course in English.

I am assuming that you can decode the opening paragraph or else you would most likely not have selected this webpage in the first place! Consequently, I cannot vouch for the accuracy of the translations into Greek or Dutch. The point I am illustrating is that language is, in one sense, a code and in order to share meanings linguistically we must share the same code.

For example, the Morse code pairs each letter of the alphabet with a series of short or long beeps. In a similar manner, it is argued, a language pairs linguistic senses and sounds: I must encode my thoughts into a mutually understandable form that you can subsequently decode. In sum, we must share a common language. Reasoning such as this has given rise to the so-called encode-decode model of communication and diagrammatic representations such as Figure 2.

Figure 2. Encode-decode communication models as represented in Figure 2 come under the general heading of transmission models. Such models have been in use for a considerable time, e. A sender encodes a message, which is transmitted through an appropriate channel in the case of speech , in a face-to-face interaction, this is air , to a receiver who subsequently decodes the message. This basic model can be expanded to six elements:.

We have already noted that when messages are spoken in face-to-face interactions the channel is the air between the speaker and the listener. In the same way that a source requires an encoder to render his or her thoughts into messages, so a receiver requires a decoder to decipher the message.

The receiver is, self-evidently, the person s at the end of the channel. Put another way, a person source formulates an idea — a concept — and encodes this concept linguistically, i. The speaker, therefore, encodes his or her intended message into a signal that is decoded by the listener who uses an identical copy of the code. According to such encode-decode models, then, all that is required is an appropriate encoding and decoding algorithm, i.

The implication is, once again, that if the speaker and listener both share the same code — a common language — then communication is possible. Language allows humans to translate thoughts into strings of sounds, syllables and words, and to translate strings of sounds, syllables and words into thoughts:.

Humans, therefore, can function both as encoders of linguistic meaning and decoders of linguistic sound. Within a matter of moments I readily settle on the word cat. This appears to be a fitting explanation of human communication, as all that is required is that the people communicating with each other share the same code, in this case the language known as English.

In this way, they are able to encode meanings into sounds and decode the sounds into their meanings. The above explanation all seems fairly straightforward. However, there are several difficulties with this model, such as the fact that it does not take into account the backwards-and-forwards dynamic nature of spoken interaction, and that it does not address the issue of how we both make meaning and infer meaning.

The following article deals with both of these issues:. Denes, P. Schramm, W. Shannon, C. Sperber, D. What is Intelligence? Cambridge University Press , Graham Williamson. Categories: Communication. Related posts:. Transition Relevance Places. Dynamic Non-Verbal Communication. Problems with the Encode-Decode Model.

Encoding and Decoding in Communication Process

In basic terms, humans communicate through a process of encoding and decoding. The encoder is the person who develops and sends the message. As represented in Figure 1. Encoding is the process of turning thoughts into communication. The level of conscious thought that goes into encoding messages may vary.

Communication is a complex process, and it is difficult to determine where or with whom a communication encounter starts and ends. Models of communication simplify the process by providing a visual representation of the various aspects of a communication encounter. Models still serve a valuable purpose for students of communication because they allow us to see specific concepts and steps within the process of communication, define communication, and apply communication concepts. When you become aware of how communication functions, you can think more deliberately through your communication encounters, which can help you better prepare for future communication and learn from your previous communication. The three models of communication we will discuss are the transmission, interaction, and transaction models.

Literally encoding means to convert body of information from one system to another system in the form of codes. Code is the system of symbol, sign or letters used to represent the secret meaning. Coding stand for the full ledged system of meaning to the members of the culture or sub culture. It must be also noted that code and system are inter related with each other. The effective communication process can be easily understood from the following diagram.

and defined these moments of translation as “encoding” and “decoding.” As Weaver (, p. 27) noted, this “engineering theory of communication” focused.

Modulation, Encoding, and Decoding

Popularized in the s, it suggests that there are multiple ways for media users to interpret media texts. The ways in which media producers encode messages and users decode them are bound up here in a complex hierarchy of cultural specificity and power relations. During the first half of the twentieth century a simple linear model of media communication was in vogue.

Figure 1. Two different codes. When writing this article an important first decision was to determine which code I would use. That is to say, which particular world language would be used to encode my intended meanings? If, for example, I had chosen the code known as Greek or the code known as Dutch, and you do no understand how to decode these particular languages then my communication attempts would be in vain.


The centrality of codes to communication is a distinctive semiotic contribution which emphasizes the social nature of communication and the importance of conventions though context is seen as equally important in Jakobson's model. Such codes are expected to be largely shared by the participants. Stuart Hall's model of mass communication, also called the circuit of communication In the context of the production and reception of television news and current affairs programmes, Hall argued that events had to be encoded into televisual stories reflecting an intended meaning. The apparent naturalness of television codes disguises their ideological potential. However transparent such codes may seem to be, they are rich in connotations and require decoding interpretation.

Энсей Танкадо умер. Вина ляжет на АНБ. - Мы успеем найти его партнера. - Думаю. У нас есть кое-какие данные. Танкадо неоднократно публично заявлял, что у него есть партнер. Наверное, этим он надеялся помешать производителям программного обеспечения организовать нападение на него и выкрасть пароль.


  • To browse Academia. Sabine C. - 12.06.2021 at 01:52
  • organize my reflections around the question of the encoding/decoding moments in receive the television communication better, more effectively'. I therefore. Quelantingbook - 12.06.2021 at 12:25