Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications pdf
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Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service. This can be achieved either by using energy more efficiently using less energy for a constant service or by reducing the amount of service used for example, by driving less.
Energy conservation is a part of the concept of Eco-sufficiency. Energy conservation measures ECMs in buildings reduce the need for energy services and can result in increased environmental quality, national security , personal financial security and higher savings. Energy can be conserved by reducing wastage and losses, improving efficiency through technological upgrades and improved operation and maintenance.
On a global level energy use can also be reduced by the stabilization of population growth. Energy can only be transformed from one form to other, such as heat energy to motive power in cars, or kinetic energy of water flow to electricity in hydroelectric power plants.
However machines are required to transform energy from one form to other. The wear and friction of the components of these machine while running cause losses of very high amounts of energy and very high related costs.
It is possible to minimize these losses by adopting green engineering practices to improve life cycle of the components. Some countries employ energy or carbon taxes to motivate energy users to reduce their consumption. Carbon taxes can motivate consumption to shift to energy sources with less emissions of carbon dioxide, such as solar power , wind power , hydroelectricity or nuclear power while avoiding cars with combustion engines, jet fuel, oil, fossil gas and coal.
On the other hand, taxes on all energy consumption can reduce energy use across the board while reducing a broader array of environmental consequences arising from energy production. The state of California employs a tiered energy tax whereby every consumer receives a baseline energy allowance that carries a low tax.
As usage increases above that baseline, the tax increases drastically. Such programs aim to protect poorer households while creating a larger tax burden for high energy consumers. Developing countries specifically are less likely to impose policy measures that slow carbon emissions as this would slow their economic development. These growing countries may be more likely to support their own economic growth and supporting their citizens rather than decreasing their carbon emissions.
The following pros and cons of a carbon tax help one to see some of the potential effects of a carbon tax policy. One of the primary ways to improve energy conservation in buildings is to perform an energy audit. An energy audit is an inspection and analysis of energy use and flows for energy conservation in a building, process or system with an eye toward reducing energy input without negatively affecting output.
This is normally accomplished by trained professionals and can be part of some of the national programs discussed above. Recent development of smartphone apps enables homeowners to complete relatively sophisticated energy audits themselves.
Building technologies and smart meters can allow energy users, both commercial and residential, to visualize the impact their energy use can have in their workplace or homes. Advanced real-time energy metering can help people save energy by their actions. In passive solar building design , windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer.
This is called passive solar design or climatic design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it does not involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices. The key to designing a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate. Elements to be considered include window placement and glazing type, thermal insulation , thermal mass , and shading.
Passive solar design techniques can be applied most easily to new buildings, but existing buildings can be retrofitted. This industry has been around since the s and is more prevalent than ever today. In the United States, suburban infrastructure evolved during an age of relatively easy access to fossil fuels, which has led to transportation-dependent systems of living.
Zoning reforms that allow greater urban density as well as designs for walking and bicycling can greatly reduce energy consumed for transportation. The use of telecommuting by major corporations is a significant opportunity to conserve energy, as many Americans now work in service jobs that enable them to work from home instead of commuting to work each day.
Homeowners implementing ECMs in their residential buildings often start with an energy audit. This is a way homeowners look at what areas of their homes are using, and possibly losing energy. Energy conservation measures are often combined into larger guaranteed Energy Savings Performance Contracts to maximize energy savings while minimizing disruption to building occupants by coordinating renovations. Some ECMs cost less to implement yet return a higher energy savings.
Smaller buildings might combine window replacement with modern insulation using advanced building foams to improve energy for performance. Energy dashboard projects  are a new kind of ECM which relies on the behavioral change of building occupants to save energy. Consumers are often poorly informed of the savings of energy efficient products. A prominent example of this is the energy savings that can be made by replacing an incandescent light bulb with a more modern alternative.
When purchasing light bulbs, many consumers opt for cheap incandescent bulbs, failing to take into account their higher energy costs and lower lifespans when compared to modern compact fluorescent and LED bulbs.
Although these energy-efficient alternatives have a higher upfront cost, their long lifespan and low energy use can save consumers a considerable amount of money. Many LED bulbs on the market qualify for utility rebates that further reduce the price of purchase to the consumer.
The research one must put into conserving energy is often too time consuming and costly for the average consumer when there are cheaper products and technology available using today's fossil fuels. To provide the kind of information and support people need to invest money, time and effort in energy conservation, it is important to understand and link to people's topical concerns.
However, health studies have demonstrated that headache, stress , blood pressure , fatigue and worker error all generally increase with the common over-illumination present in many workplace and retail settings.
In warm climates where air conditioning is used, any household device that gives off heat will result in a larger load on the cooling system. Items such as stoves, dish washers, clothes dryers, hot water and incandescent lighting all add heat to the home. Low-power or insulated versions of these devices give off less heat for the air conditioning to remove. The air conditioning system can also improve in efficiency by using a heat sink that is cooler than the standard air heat exchanger, such as geothermal or water.
In cold climates, heating air and water is a major demand on household energy use. Significant energy reductions are possible by using different technologies. Heat pumps are a more efficient alternative to electrical resistance heaters for warming air or water.
A variety of efficient clothes dryers are available, and the clothes lines requires no energy- only time. Natural-gas or bio-gas condensing boilers and hot-air furnaces increase efficiency over standard hot-flue models. Standard electric boilers can be made to run only at hours of the day when they are needed by means of a time switch.
In showers, a semi-closed-loop system could be used. New construction implementing heat exchangers can capture heat from waste water or exhaust air in bathrooms, laundry and kitchens. In both warm and cold climate extremes, airtight thermal insulated construction is the largest factor determining the efficiency of a home. Insulation is added to minimize the flow of heat to or from the home, but can be labor-intensive to retrofit to an existing home.
On a global basis energy efficiency works behind the scenes to improve our energy security, lower our energy bills and move us closer to reaching our climate goals. While all 50 states, Puerto Rico and Washington, D. Despite the vital role energy efficiency is expected to play in cost-effectively cutting energy demand, only a small part of its economic potential is exploited in Asia.
Governments have implemented a range of subsidies such as cash grants, cheap credit, tax exemptions, and co-financing with public-sector funds to encourage a range of energy-efficiency initiatives across several sectors. Governments in the Asia-Pacific region have implemented a range of information provision and labelling programs for buildings, appliances, and the transportation and industrial sectors.
Information programs can simply provide data, such as fuel-economy labels, or actively seek to encourage behavioural changes, such as Japan's Cool Biz campaign that encourages setting air conditioners at degrees Celsius and allowing employees to dress casually in the summer. As part of the EU's SAVE programme,  aimed at promoting energy efficiency and encouraging energy-saving behavior, the Boiler Efficiency Directive  specifies minimum levels of efficiency for boilers utilizing liquid or gaseous fuels.
The Petroleum Conservation Research Association PCRA is an Indian governmental body created in that engages in promoting energy efficiency and conservation in every walk of life. In the recent past PCRA has done mass-media campaigns in television, radio, and print media. This is an impact-assessment survey by a third party revealed that due to these larger campaigns by PCRA, the public's overall awareness level has gone up leading to saving of fossil fuels worth crores of rupees, besides reducing pollution.
The Bureau of Energy Efficiency is an Indian government organisation created in that is responsible for promoting energy efficiency and conservation. Since the oil crisis , energy Zeesun conservation has been an issue in Japan.
All oil-based fuel is imported, so domestic sustainable energy is being developed. The Energy Conservation Center  promotes energy efficiency in every aspect of Japan. Public entities are implementing the efficient use of energy for industries and research.
It includes projects such as the Top Runner Program. In Lebanon and since The Lebanese Center for Energy Conservation LCEC has been promoting the development of efficient and rational uses of energy and the use of renewable energy at the consumer level.
Until recently, Nepal has been focusing on the exploitation of its huge water resources to produce hydro power. Demand side management and energy conservation was not in the focus of government action. The aim of the programme is the promotion of energy efficiency in policy making, in rural and urban households as well as in the industry.
The Energy Efficiency Centre is a non-profit initiative that is offering energy auditing services to the industries. These savings are equivalent to annual energy cost cut of up to 6.
The Energy Management Association of New Zealand is a membership based organization representing the New Zealand energy services sector, providing training and accreditation services with the aim of ensuring energy management services are credible and dependable. In Nigeria, the Lagos State Government is encouraging Lagosians to imbibe an energy conservation culture. The initiative is designed to sensitize Lagosians around the theme of energy conservation by influencing their behavior through do-it-yourself tips.
In addition to this, during the month of October the official energy conservation month in the state , LSEB hosted experience centers in malls around Lagos State where members of the public were encouraged to calculate their household energy consumption and discover ways to save money using a consumer-focused energy app. Sri Lanka currently consumes fossil fuels , hydro power , wind power , solar power and dendro power for their day to day power generation.
The Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority is playing a major role regarding energy management and energy conservation. Today, most of the industries are requested to reduce their energy consumption by using renewable energy sources and optimizing their energy usage.
The United States is currently the second largest single consumer of energy, following China. The U. Department of Energy categorizes national energy use in four broad sectors: transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial. Energy usage in transportation and residential sectors, about half of U. Commercial and industrial energy expenditures are determined by businesses entities and other facility managers.
National energy policy has a significant effect on energy usage across all four sectors. This program is not mandatory, it is voluntary. This program has many categories, Energy and Atmosphere Prerequisite, applies to energy conservation.
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It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Editors: Bizon , N. This book presents basic and advanced concepts for energy harvesting and energy efficiency, as well as related technologies, methods, and their applications. The book provides up-to-date knowledge and discusses the state-of-the-art equipment and methods used for energy harvesting and energy efficiency, combining theory and practical applications. Containing over illustrations and problems and solutions, the book begins with overview chapters on the status quo in this field. Subsequent chapters introduce readers to advanced concepts and methods.
MODULE ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGIES AND BENEFITS page iii. CONTENTS Thus, the energy efficiency of an electric motor is the proven over many years of application, and some of which may be relatively new and less.
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Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service. This can be achieved either by using energy more efficiently using less energy for a constant service or by reducing the amount of service used for example, by driving less. Energy conservation is a part of the concept of Eco-sufficiency.
Energy Efficiency of Medical Devices and Healthcare Facilities provides comprehensive coverage of cutting-edge, interdisciplinary research, and commercial solutions in this field. The authors discuss energy-related challenges, such as energy-efficient design, including renewable energy, of different medical devices from a hardware and mechanical perspectives, as well as energy management solutions and techniques in healthcare networks and facilities.