Theories and practices of development pdf
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- Development theory
- Theories and Practices of Sustainable Development in Africa
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Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved. Such theories draw on a variety of social science disciplines and approaches. In this article, multiple theories are discussed, as are recent developments with regard to these theories. Depending on which theory that is being looked at, there are different explanations to the process of development and their inequalities. Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development.
It is the wish of every community and every nation to move from one stage of development to another. Development is holistic approach that involves structural institutional changes and social economic transformation, in addition to increased outputs and incomes. Economic growth involves urbanization, industrialization and increased and appropriate use of technology in all sectors of the economy. The government major role is to provide good welfare to its citizens. It is also obliged to facilitate economic players to actively participate in economic activity through provision of infrastructure. All this is done through the process of development theory, policy and planning. Developing countries have an outstanding characteristic of high poverty levels with low national income and per capita incomes.
Theories and Practices of Sustainable Development in Africa
In its most general sense, development is a process that has gone on throughout human history as individuals and societies have attempted to better themselves. In Europe, concerted efforts to improve the conditions of disadvantaged sectors in society began in the 19th and early 20th centuries often spearheaded by religious or socialist groups. Such efforts were accompanied by the study of disadvantage, and eventually led, inter alia , to legislation and the establishment of government departments concerned with improving or protecting social welfare. However, the 'development' as a major government activity and field of endeavour extending beyond national borders emerged only after the Second World War, as a result of the need to rebuild the war-torn countries in Europe. European, US, and international organisations involved in reconstruction in Europe then turned their attention to the problems faced by countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as they began to gain their independence and as people and governments in former colonial countries recognised that they faced both obligations and opportunities in raising economic activities and living standards in their former colonies.
The theoretical framework for sustainable development was emerged from to through series of international conferences. In , the first major international conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm. This conference created considerable momentum and recommendations, which led to the establishment of the UN environment Program UNEP and numerous national environmental protection agencies at national level. The recommendations at Stockholm further elaborated in World Conservation Strategy ; which discusses about the collaboration between the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, the World Wildlife Fund WWF , and UNEP; aimed to advance such development by identifying priority conservation agendas and key policy options. Add to Cart.